Towards a Translational Approach to Food Addiction: Implications for Bulimia Nervosa

AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn recent years, the food addiction hypothesis of loss-of-control eating has gained traction in the field of eating disorders. In particular, the neural process of food addiction plays a dominant role in the recently formulated “addictive appetite” model of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Nonetheless, several components of the food addiction hypothesis, including the presence of withdrawal and tolerance effects, as well as the proposition that some foods possess “addicting” properties, remain highly cont roversial. In response, the current review synthesises existing evidence for withdrawal and tolerance effects in people with bulimia nervosa.Recent FindingsThe recent development of a validated tool to measure withdrawal from highly processed foods will aid in measuring withdrawal symptoms and testing hypotheses related to withdrawal in the context of food addiction. We subsequently describe preclinical and human evidence for a central insulin- and dopamine-mediated pathway by which recurrent loss-of-control binge eating is maintained in bulimia nervosa.SummaryEvidence in populations with bulimia nervosa and loss-of-control eating provides preliminary support for the role of food addiction in the maintenance of bulimia nervosa. Future longitudinal research is needed to develop a clearer profile of illness progression and to clarify the extent to which dysregulation in glucose metabolism contributes to food craving an...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - Category: Addiction Source Type: research

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Yes: there are opiates that derive from various food proteins that exert peculiar effects on the human brain. The worst? The opiates that come from the gliadin protein of wheat and related grains. Opiate receptor researchers at the National Institutes of Health originally coined the term “gluteomorphin” nearly 40 years ago when it was determined that the gliadin protein of wheat undergoes partial digestion (since humans lack the digestive enzymes to fully digest proline-rich amino acid sequences in proteins from seeds of grasses) to yield peptides that are 4- to 5-amino acids long. Some of these peptides w...
Source: Wheat Belly Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Opioids addictive binge eating bulimia eating disorders Gliadin opiates wheat belly Source Type: blogs
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) is a self-report questionnaire for the assessment of addiction-like consumption of high-calorie, processed foods. The original scale was developed in 2009 and —for its tenth anniversary—we now review studies using its revised version—the YFAS 2.0.Recent FindingsThe 11 symptoms of food addiction as measured with the YFAS 2.0 demonstrated high internal reliability and a unidimensional structure in several studies, supporting construct validity. Similar to the original YFAS, highest prevalence rates of YFAS 2.0 diagnoses were found in individuals ...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - Category: Addiction Source Type: research
Conclusions The treatment used for PD, particularly DA, is associated with the development of ICDs and related behaviors. Susceptibility to these disorders depends on the associated risk factors. ICDs can have serious personal, family, psychosocial, financial, and medical consequences. However, in contrast, artistic activities have been described in patients with PD while undergoing treatment with DA. These patients are compulsive but report a positive influence on quality of life. These findings highlight the need for a very critical approach at the moment of Dopaminergic Replacement therapy choice. Author Contributio...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
How can conventional dietary advice gotten it so wrong? Rather than eating plenty of “healthy whole grains,” people on the Wheat Belly lifestyle eat absolutely no grains and enjoy spectacular weight loss and reversal of hundreds of health conditions as a result. Unfortunately, many people view this as a “gluten-free” lifestyle which is incorrect. Here are 10 reasons why no bagels, pretzels, or sandwiches made from wheat flour should ever cross human lips. Gliadin-derived opioid peptides (from partial digestion to 4- and 5-amino acid long fragments) increase appetite substantially–as do related...
Source: Wheat Belly Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Wheat Belly Lifestyle Gliadin gluten Inflammation Weight Loss Source Type: blogs
Conclusion It is clear that clinically, there is still much to be learnt about alexithymia and its relationship with a range of related phenomena. Firstly, is alexithymia a continuous and stable trait independent of psychological or somatic symptomology that is developed during childhood? Or is it instead a reactive state induced by trauma and distress at any age, which serves to defend against intense and upsetting emotions? This impacts on treatment options. For example, should we be focussing on early childhood interventions which target the child's emotional environment and parenting to encourage emotional exp...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review is intended to describe the role of brain stimulation in knowledge generation, treatment, and prevention of clinical disorders of indulgent eating (e.g., obesity, bulimia, binge eating).Recent FindingsAlthough both invasive and non-invasive variants of brain stimulation have been evaluated as treatments for disorders of indulgent eating, only non-invasive variants have been studied extensively. Among these, both repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) have been evaluated in randomized trials; recent findings for both have been pr...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - Category: Addiction Source Type: research
There is no such thing as a life free of distress. And yet in the distress — by learning to move through it, find strengths that help us cope, and most importantly, not avoid it — we often find the path to growth. This path, from finding escape from the distress of life to finding growth in it, is also the journey that underlies the recovery from an eating disorder. “People with eating disorders, like all people, flourish when they feel a sense of agency,” write authors Laura J. Goodman and Mona Villapiano. In their new book, Eating Disorders: The Journey to Recovery Workbook, 2nd Ed., Laura J. Good...
Source: Psych Central - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Addictions Anorexia Binge Eating Book Reviews Bulimia Diet & Nutrition Disorders Eating Disorders General Habits Healthy Living Psychology Self-Esteem Self-Help Trauma Treatment Weight Loss books on how to recover from an Source Type: news
Eating disorders are biologically based brain illnesses influenced by environmental and psychological factors. Environmental risk factors for developing an eating disorder include weight and appearance pressures, media messaging, and weight bullying. Biological factors include dieting/food exposure, genetics, neurochemistry, neurobiology, and hormones (notably estrogen). Psychological factors include stress, life transitions, identity, trauma, anxiety, depression, and substance use. While risk factors predispose certain individuals to eating disorders, precipitating factors such as significantly altering how one eats or s...
Source: Psych Central - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Anorexia Binge Eating Bulimia Bullying Children and Teens Eating Disorders Neuroscience Psychology Women's Issues Body Dysmorphia Body Image bulimia. food addiction Source Type: news
There are plenty of reasons to never allow a bagel, sandwich, or pretzels to cross your lips again. But here are the top 10 most powerful and compelling reasons to tell the USDA and other providers of dietary advice to bug off with their “healthy whole grains” nonsense. Gliadin-derived opioid peptides (from partial digestion to 4- and 5-amino acid long fragments) increase appetite substantially–as do related proteins from rye, barley, and corn. This is a big part of the reason why grains make you gain weight. Gliadin-derived opioid peptides are mind active drugs that trigger behavioral outbursts in kids ...
Source: Wheat Belly Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: News & Updates autoimmune blood sugar Gliadin gluten gluten-free grain-free grains Inflammation joint pain low-carb wheat belly Source Type: blogs
We can link grain consumption with causing or worsening some of the most mysterious brain disorders that have eluded the medical community for years, such as schizophrenia, epilepsy, depression, bipolar disorder, and, more recently, autism and ADHD. Are you and your kids unknowingly under the influence of opiates? Opiates come disguised in many forms.   Grains contain opiates. Not figuratively, but quite literally. These opiates are not too different from morphine or heroin. Yes, wheat and grains, cleverly disguised as a multigrain loaf of bread to make sandwiches or a hot, steamy plate of macaroni and cheese for the ...
Source: Wheat Belly Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: News & Updates adhd bipolar disorder brain fog concentration Depression diy health Dr. Davis epilepsy grain-free headaches Inflammation mind mood swings OCD opiates schizophrenia undoctored wheat belly Wheat Belly Tot Source Type: blogs
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