Inhibitory Effect of Volatiles Emitted From Alcaligenes faecalis N1-4 on Aspergillus flavus and Aflatoxins in Storage

Controlling aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus (Af) and aflatoxins in grains and food during storage are great challenge to humans worldwide. Alcaligenes faecalis N1-4 isolated from tea rhizosphere soil can produce abundant antifungal volatiles, and greatly inhibited the growth of Af in un-contacted face-to-face dual culture tests. Gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry revealed that dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and methyl isovalerate (MI) were two abundant compounds in the volatile profiles of N1-4. DMDS with the highest relative abundance (69.90%, to the total peak area) in N1-4 volatiles eventually prevented the conidia germination and mycelia growth of Af at 100 µL/L respectively. The concentration for MI against Af is 200 µL/L. Additionally, Real‑time Quantitative PCR analysis proved that the expression of 11 important genes in aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway were significantly reduced by these volatiles. And the Af disease and aflatoxins contamination in groundnut, maize, rice and soybean of high water activity were also completely inhibited by volatiles in storage. Scanning electron microscope further proved that Af conidia inoculated on peanuts surface were severely damage by volatiles from N1-4, and can not germinate to hyphae and conidiophore. Furthermore, strain N1-4 showed broad and effective antifungal activity to other 6 important plant pathogens including Fusarium graminearum, F. equiseti, Alternaria alternate, Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger a...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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This article describes a new three-step biorefinery process for the complete fractionation of brewery spent grain (BSG). First, BSG was assessed as a substrate for the production of enzymatic cocktails, mainly xylanases, through solid-state fermentation with Aspergillus brasiliensis. Second, the spent solid residue (SSR) recovered was delignified with cholinium glycinate ionic liquid, reducing the Klason lignin by 75.26% and the soluble lignin by 62.92%. In addition, scanning electron microscopy of the carbohydrate-rich material (CRM) showed some microfibrils and pores, which facilitated the diffusion of enzymes. Third, a...
Source: Process Biochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
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Source: Food Control - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
This article develops a three-steps biorefining process for the complete fractionation of brewery spent grain (BSG). First, BSG was used as substrate for solid-state fermentations in horizontal drum bioreactors with different amounts of Aspergillus brasiliensis to produce enzymatic cocktails, mainly xylanases. Second, the spent solid residue recovered under the lower inoculum concentration was treated with the cholinium glycinate ionic liquids (ILs) to obtain a carbohydrate-rich material with lower lignin content. Pretreatment with ILs has been postulated to improve the enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomas...
Source: Process Biochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
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Source: Materials Chemistry and Physics - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Molecular Structure - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
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Source: Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Rev Iberoam Micol Source Type: research
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Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Molecular Structure - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
This study showed that LP and AP plasma treatments might be an alternative method for inactivation of aflatoxin- producing fungi.Industrial relevanceNon-thermal (cold) plasma is a promising technology for decontamination of foods due to its safety, ease of use and low temperature processing capability. The results of this study showed that plasma system can be incorporated into a food processing chain, and when initial Aspergillus spp. spores were 7.8–7.9 cfu/g in hazelnut, plasma treatment with reductions of up to 5.6 log cfu/g can compete with other decontamination methods.
Source: Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
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