Adenovirus Isolated From a Cat Is Related to Human Adenovirus 1

An adenovirus (AdV) has been isolated from the rectal swab of a domestic cat (Felis catus) and named feline adenovirus (FeAdV) isolate. It replicates and causes cytopathological effects in many human, feline, other mammalian cell lines that have both Coxsackie-adenovirus-receptor and integrins. Its antigens cross-react with anti-human adenovirus antibodies in immunofluorescence and immunocytochemistry assays. Electron microscopy revealed typical extracellular icosahedral particles and pseudo arrays inside cells. Sequence analysis of hexon and fiber genes indicates that this virus might belong to human adenovirus (HAdV) C species and might be a variant of type 1. In the fiber protein, three altered amino acids occur in the shaft; four altered residues are found in the knob region as compared to a European human adenovirus might be type 1 isolate (strain 1038, D11). One alteration affects amino acid 442 forming an RGS motif in an alanine rich region that might be an alternative way to bind integrins with subsequent internalization. Substitutions in the hexon sequence are silent. As compared to published human adenovirus sequences, the fiber is related to the original American prototype and recently described Taiwanese human adenovirus 1 isolates, but the hexon sequences are related to adenovirus isolates from France, Germany, Japan, and Taiwan. Serology carried out on FeAdV infected M426 cells indicates a prevalence of IgG in 80% of domestic cats in Delaware, USA. FeAdV isolate...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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Contributors : Steven Tuyishime ; Larissa H Haut ; Raj K Kurupati ; James M Billingsley ; Diane Carnathan ; Zhi Q Xiang ; Yan Li ; Malte Zopfs ; Qin Liu ; Xiang Y Zhou ; Mark G Lewis ; Steven Bosinger ; Guido Silvestri ; Hildegund C ErtlichollSeries Type : Expression profiling by arrayOrganism : Macaca mulattaAn efficacious vaccine to HIV-1 remains elusive. We tested two vaccine regimens based on prime-boosting with two chimpanzee-origin adenovirus (Ad) vectors (SAdV) of serotypes SAdV24 and SAdV23 or two distinct human serotype Ad vectors (HAdV), i.e., HAdV5 and HAdV26, expressing Gag and gp160 of SIVmac239 for induction ...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by array Macaca mulatta Source Type: research
Conclusions This review describes how leukocyte-heparanase can be a double-edged sword in tumor progression; it can enhance tumor immune surveillance and tumor cell clearance, but also promote tumor survival and growth. We also discuss the potential of using heparanase in leukocyte therapies against tumors, and the effects of heparanase inhibitors on tumor progression and immunity. We are just beginning to understand the influence of heparanase on a pro/anti-tumor immune response, and there are still many questions to answer. How do the pro/anti-tumorigenic effects of heparanase differ across different cancer types? Does...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Yuka Nadai1,2, Kathrin Held1,2, Sarah Joseph3, Mohamed I. M. Ahmed1,2, Verena S. Hoffmann1,2, David Peterhoff4, Marco Missanga5, Asli Bauer1,5, Agricola Joachim6, Ulf Reimer7, Johannes Zerweck7, Sheena McCormack3, Alethea V. Cope8, Roger Tatoud8, Robin J. Shattock8, Merlin Lee Robb9, Eric G. Sandstroem10, Michael Hoelscher1,2, Leonard Maboko5, Muhammad Bakari6, Arne Kroidl1,2, Ralf Wagner4,11, Jonathan Weber8, Georgios Pollakis12 and Christof Geldmacher1,2* 1Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany 2German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner S...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Eun-Ju Ko, Sabrina Helmold Hait, Gospel Enyindah-Asonye, Mohammad Arif Rahman, Tanya Hoang and Marjorie Robert-Guroff* Vaccine Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States Inducing strong mucosal immune responses by vaccination is important for providing protection against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). A replicating adenovirus type 5 host range mutant vector (Ad5hr) expressing SIV proteins induced mucosal immune responses in rectal tissue associated with delayed SIV acquisition in female rhesus macaques, but the initial mechanisms leading to the induced immu...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Andrew R. Crowley1 and Margaret E. Ackerman1,2* 1Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, United States2Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, United States The field of HIV research relies heavily on non-human primates, particularly the members of the macaque genus, as models for the evaluation of candidate vaccines and monoclonal antibodies. A growing body of research suggests that successful protection of humans will not solely rely on the neutralization activity of an antibody's antigen binding fragment. Rather, immunological effector functions pro...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 March 2019Source: The Lancet HIVAuthor(s): Frances H Priddy, David J M Lewis, Huub C Gelderblom, Hana Hassanin, Claire Streatfield, Celia LaBranche, Jonathan Hare, Josephine H Cox, Len Dally, Daryl Bendel, David Montefiori, Eddy Sayeed, Jim Ackland, Jill Gilmour, Bruce C Schnepp, J Fraser Wright, Philip JohnsonSummaryBackgroundA preventive vaccine for HIV is a crucial public health need; adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated antibody gene delivery could be an alternative to immunisation to induce sustained expression of neutralising antibodies to prevent HIV. We assessed safety and tol...
Source: The Lancet HIV - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018Source: The LancetAuthor(s): Dan H Barouch, Frank L Tomaka, Frank Wegmann, Daniel J Stieh, Galit Alter, Merlin L Robb, Nelson L Michael, Lauren Peter, Joseph P Nkolola, Erica N Borducchi, Abishek Chandrashekar, David Jetton, Kathryn E Stephenson, Wenjun Li, Bette Korber, Georgia D Tomaras, David C Montefiori, Glenda Gray, Nicole Frahm, M Juliana McElrathSummaryBackgroundMore than 1·8 million new cases of HIV-1 infection were diagnosed worldwide in 2016. No licensed prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine exists. A major limitation to date has been the lack of direct comparability bet...
Source: The Lancet - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog - Emergency medicine and critical care medical education blog aka Tropical Travel Trouble 009 The diagnosis of HIV is no longer fatal and the term AIDS is becoming less frequent. In many countries, people with HIV are living longer than those with diabetes. This post will hopefully teach the basics of a complex disease and demystify some of the potential diseases you need to consider in those who are severely immunosuppressed. While trying to be comprehensive this post can not be exhaustive (as you can imagine any patient with ...
Source: Life in the Fast Lane - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Tags: Clinical Cases Tropical Medicine AIDS art cryptococcoma cryptococcus HIV HIV1 HIV2 PEP PrEP TB toxoplasma tuberculoma Source Type: blogs
In this study, we investigated the innate interactions of APCs with two commonly used HIV vaccine vectors, ALVAC and Ad5, and identified AIM2 as an innate sensor for ALVAC, triggering strong inflammasome activation in both human and mouse APCs. Microarray and comprehensive gene-knockout analyses (CRISPR/Cas9) identified that ALVAC stimulated the cGAS/IFI16-STING-type I IFN pathway to prime AIM2, which was functionally required for ALVAC-induced inflammasome activation. We also provided evidence that, in contrast to ALVAC, the Ad5 vector itself was unable to induce inflammasome activation, which was related to its inability...
Source: Journal of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Immunol Source Type: research
Purpose of review: Here we discuss recently developed HIV-1 entry inhibitors that can target multiple epitopes on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env), with an emphasis on eCD4-Ig. Some of these inhibitors are more potent and broader than any single antibody characterized to date. We also discuss the use of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors as a platform for long-term expression of these inhibitors. Recent findings: Much of the exterior of HIV-1 Env can be targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). Recent studies combine the variable regions or Fabs from different bNAbs, often with the receptor-...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV AND NOVEL STRATEGIES FOR INDUCTION OF BROAD NEUTRALIZING ANTIBODIES FOLLOWING VACCINATION: Edited by Ralf Wagner Source Type: research
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