Cholinergic nervous system and glaucoma: From basic science to clinical applications

Publication date: Available online 23 June 2019Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Muneeb A. Faiq, Gadi Wollstein, Joel S. Schuman, Kevin C. ChanAbstractThe cholinergic system has a crucial role to play in visual function. Although cholinergic drugs have been a focus of attention as glaucoma medications for reducing eye pressure, little is known about the potential modality for neuronal survival and/or enhancement in visual impairments. Citicoline, a naturally occurring compound and FDA approved dietary supplement, is a nootropic agent that is recently demonstrated to be effective in ameliorating ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, cerebrovascular diseases, memory disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in both humans and animal models. The mechanisms of its action appear to be multifarious including (i) preservation of cardiolipin, sphingomyelin, arachidonic acid content of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, (ii) restoration of phosphatidylcholine, (iii) stimulation of glutathione synthesis, (iv) lowering glutamate concentrations and preventing glutamate excitotoxicity, (v) rescuing mitochondrial function thereby preventing oxidative damage and onset of neuronal apoptosis, (vi) synthesis of myelin leading to improvement in neuronal membrane integrity, (vii) improving acetylcholine synthesis and thereby reducing the effects of mental stress and (viii) preventing endothelial dysfunc...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Related Links:

ConclusionOur experimental findings offer a promising prospect for the use of HCY2 in the management of obesity through the regulation of AMPK/PGC1 pathways.Graphical Abstract
Source: Phytomedicine - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 July 2019Source: Biocybernetics and Biomedical EngineeringAuthor(s): Díaz Primitivo, Rodríguez Alma, Cuevas Erik, Valdivia Arturo, Chavolla Edgar, Pérez-Cisneros Marco, Zaldívar DanielAbstractIn the last years, image processing has been an important tool for health care. The analysis of retinal vessel images has become crucial to achieving a better diagnosis and treatment for several cardiovascular and ophthalmological deceases. Therefore, an automatic and accurate procedure for retinal vessel and optic disc segmentation is essential for illness detection. T...
Source: Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering - Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 July 2019Source: Journal of Clinical NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Pornpatr A. Dharmasaroja, Nattaphol Uransilp, Pritsana PiyabhanAbstractThe anatomic variation of Circle of Willis (CW) has been shown to have a great impact on its compensatory capacity during acute ischemic stroke. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of variations in CW on collateral circulation in patients with acute ischemic stroke who had major artery occlusion. Patients with acute ischemic stroke within 4.5 h of stroke onset who had at least moderate severity of stroke (NIHSS ≥ 6), caused by major...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
ConclusionsA bleeding revision is associated with significantly reduced survival and substantially increased morbidity during LVAD support. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative prophylactic strategies may help to prevent this life-threatening complication.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe use of physician-modified thoracic stent grafts for the treatment of dissecting aortic arch aneurysm after surgical treatment of acute type A dissection is feasible and effective. Durability concerns will need to be assessed in future studies.Visual Abstract
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
ConclusionsIn our experience, this approach is a reliable platform for a variety of MICS procedures and has resulted in low complication rates. The technique can be applied safely to both paediatric and adult population. Also, it is very cost effective as regular instruments and cannulas are used.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
The objective was therefore to assess insulin and amino acid responses following intake of a high protein meal in healthy horses and those with EMS. Six mature horses diagnosed with EMS and six age-matched control horses without EMS were used. Horses were fed 2 g/kg body mass (BM) of a high protein pellet (31% crude protein) at time 0 and 30 min, for a total of 4 g/kg BM, following an overnight fast. Blood samples collected during a 4 h period were analysed for plasma glucose, insulin, amino acids and urea concentrations.Glucose concentrations were not different between groups (P =&thinsp...
Source: The Veterinary Journal - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: We introduce a thermo regulator like structure, describe a new syndrome. In addition, it was noted thatwater-filled vesicles of CP are increased, brain temperature in nearly normal in the early phase of SAH due to likely irritation of vagal nerves. However in the late phase, mean number of water-filled vesicles numbers decreased in accordance with increased brain temperature with degenerative changes of the nodose ganglion. PMID: 31321759 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica - Category: Neurology Tags: Acta Neurol Taiwan Source Type: research
Conclusions: Although persons with AD are often collectively considered as expensive patient group, there is large temporal and inter-individual variation in belonging to the highest decile of hospitalization and/or medication costs. It would be important to assess whether hospitalization rate could be decreased by, e.g., comprehensive outpatient care with more efficient management of comorbidities. In addition, other interventions that could decrease hospitalization rate in persons with dementia should be studied further in this context. Key messages Persons with AD had large individual fluctuation in hospital care costs ...
Source: Annals of Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Ann Med Source Type: research
Authors: Yavuz IH, Ozaydin-Yavuz G, Çokluk E, Kurtoğlu Z, Bilgili SG Abstract Introduction: Hirsutism is defined as excessive terminal hair in androgen-dependent areas in women. Adipose tissue is no longer regarded as a storage site for triglycerides or as a source of free fatty acids but is currently emerging as a key constituent of energy metabolism secreting numerous enzymes, cytokines, growth factors, and hormones. Aim: To evaluate serum levels of galectin-3 (Gal3), lipocalin-2 (LCN2), retinol binding protein (RBP), and small dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL) in patients with hirsutism and patie...
Source: Advances in Dermatology and Allergology - Category: Dermatology Tags: Postepy Dermatol Alergol Source Type: research
More News: ADHD | Alzheimer's | Brain | Cardiology | Diets | Ganglions | Glaucoma | Heart | Hyperactivity | Ischemic Stroke | Men | Mitochondrial Disease | Neurology | Neuroscience | Nutrition | Opthalmology | Parkinson's Disease | Science | Stroke | Vitamin A