Genomic comparison of Newcastle disease viruses isolated in Nigeria between 2002 and 2015 reveals circulation of highly diverse genotypes and spillover into wild birds

AbstractNewcastle disease virus (NDV) has a wide avian host range and a high degree of genetic variability, and virulent strains cause Newcastle disease (ND), a worldwide concern for poultry health. Although NDV has been studied in Nigeria, genetic information about the viruses involved in the endemicity of the disease and the transmission that likely occurs at the poultry-wildlife interface is still largely incomplete. Next-generation and Sanger sequencing was performed to provide complete (n = 73) and partial genomic sequence data (n = 38) for NDV isolates collected from domestic and wild birds in Nigeria during 2002-2015, including the first complete genome sequences of genotype IV and subgenotype VIh from the African continent. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that viruses of seven different genotypes circulated in that period, demonstrating high genetic diversity of NDV for a single country. In addition, a high degree of similarity between NDV isolates from domestic and wild birds was observed, suggesting that spillovers had occurred, including to three species that had not previously been shown to be susceptible to NDV infection. Furthermore, the first spillover of a mesogenic Komarov vaccine virus is documented, suggesting a previous spillover and evolution of this virus. The similarities between viruses from poultry and multiple bird species and the lack of evidence for host adaptation in codon usage suggest that transmission of NDV between poultry and non-poultry birds...
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research

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In this study we aimed to verify clinical ND suspicions in poultry holdings in Egypt suffering from respiratory distress and elevated mortality, comparing two groups of ND-vaccinated poultry holdings in three governorates. Besides testing for Newcastle disease virus (NDV), samples were screened for infectious bronchits virus (IBV) and avian influenza virus (AIV) by RT-qPCR as well as by non-directed cell-culture approach on LMH-cells. Virulent NDV was confirmed only in group A (n = 16) comprising small-scale holdings. Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein gene of 11 NDV-positive samples obtained from th...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
We describe the unexpected binding of S-layer to cells devoid of DC-SIGN but also confirm that the presence of DC-SIGN was essential for S-layer’s antiviral activity. S-layer protein exerted its antiviral effect with different kinetics than mannan, a known viral inhibitor that also acts on DC-SIGN (Yu et al., 2017). Together our results suggest that inhibition of viral entry by S-layer occurs via a novel S-layer/DC-SIGN interaction. Materials and Methods Isolation of S-Layer Proteins S-layer proteins were extracted from overnight cultures of L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 cells grown in MRS medium at 37°C by using 6...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study, we used a swine pH1N1 challenge virus to investigate the efficacy of whole inactivated virus vaccines homologous or heterologous to the challenge virus as well as a commercial vaccine. We found that vaccine-mediated protection was most effective when vaccine antigen and challenge virus were homologous and correlated with the specific production of neutralising antibodies and a cellular response to the challenge virus. We conclude that a conventional whole inactivated SwIV vaccine must be antigenically matched to the challenge strain to be an effective control measure. PMID: 30914224 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Authors: Chen Y, Wen Y Abstract In 2013 in mainland China, a novel avian influenza virus H7N9 began to infect humans and had aroused severe fatality in the infected humans, followed by the annual outbreaks. By methods of GIS and kriging interpolation, we get the geographical distributions. We obtain the longitudinal characteristics of these outbreaks based on statistics and diagrams. After these spatiotemporal distributions, an eco-epidemiological model is established and analyzed. In this model, the general incidence functions, the factor of fully killed infected poultry, and the virus in environment are taken int...
Source: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine - Category: Statistics Tags: Comput Math Methods Med Source Type: research
AbstractNewcastle disease (ND) infects wild birds and poultry species worldwide, severely impacting the economics of the poultry industry. ND is especially problematic in Latin America (Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, and Peru) where it is either endemic or re-emerging. The disease is caused by infections with one of the different strains of virulent avian Newcastle disease virus (NDV), recently renamedAvian avulavirus 1. Here, we describe the molecular epidemiology of Latin American NDVs, current control and prevention methods, including vaccines and vaccination protocols, as well as future strategies for control of ND. Beca...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to better understand the phenomenon of genotype displacement for JEV by evaluating both avian host and mosquito vector susceptibilities to infection with representatives from both G-I and G-III. Since ducks and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes are prevalent avian hosts and vectors perpetuating JEV transmission in JE endemic areas, experimental evaluation of virus replication in these species was considered to approximate the natural conditions necessary for studying the role of host, vectors and viral fitness in the JEV genotype displacement context. We evaluated viremia in ducklings infect...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Abstract Rift valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging mosquito borne virus and haemorrhagic fever agent, which causes abortion storms in farmed small ruminants and potentially causes miscarriages in humans. Although live-attenuated vaccines are available for animals, they can only be used in endemic areas and there are currently no commercially available vaccines for humans. Here we describe the production of chimaeric RVFV virus-like particles transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer. The glycoprotein (Gn) gene was modified by removing its ectodomain (Gne...
Source: Biotechnology Journal - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Biotechnol J Source Type: research
Abstract Influenza viruses A and B are important human respiratory pathogens causing seasonal, endemic and pandemic infections in several parts of the globe with high morbidity and considerable mortality. The current inactivated and live attenuated vaccines are not effective. Therefore, it is of interest to design universal influenza virus vaccines with high efficacy. The peptide GQSVVSVKLAGNSSL of pandemic influenza, the peptide DKTSVTLAGNSSLCS of seasonal influenza and the peptide DILLKFSPTEITAPT of influenza B were identified as potential linear cell mediated epitopes. The epitopes predicted by BepiPred (B-cell...
Source: Bioinformation - Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Tags: Bioinformation Source Type: research
Background: Avian influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) top the organization for animal health list A diseases of birds. Modified stamping out policy and vaccination strategies have failed to eradicate highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and ND viruses in Nigeria because HPAI resurged with greater infectivity in 18 states within three months in 2015 while ND is endemic causing serious economic losses in many bird species. The study aimed at determining the status of AI and ND in birds in two Nigerian states with different HPAI records.
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: UMP. 234 Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 26 June 2018Source: Microbial PathogenesisAuthor(s): Shabnam Hashemi, Mohammadreza Mahzounieh, Nariman Sheikhi, Azizollah EbrahimiAbstractMycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is an avian species pathogen which causes heavy economic losses in the poultry industry. The purpose of this study was to determine genomic diversity of 14 MG field strains from chicken, Chuker partridge and peacock collected during 2009–2012 in Iran by polymerase chain reaction and partial sequencing of the pvpA gene. A High-Resolution Melting (HRM) technique was also developed and applied to differentiate between ...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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