Effect of a Russian-backbone live-attenuated influenza vaccine with an updated pandemic H1N1 strain on shedding and immunogenicity among children in The Gambia: an open-label, observational, phase 4 study

This study is nested within a randomised controlled trial investigating LAIV–microbiome interactions (NCT02972957).FindingsBetween Feb 8, 2017, and April 12, 2017, 118 children were enrolled and received one dose of the Cal09 LAIV from 2016–17. Between Jan 15, 2018, and March 28, 2018, a separate cohort of 135 children were enrolled and received one dose of the NY15 LAIV from 2017–18, of whom 126 children completed the study. Cal09 showed impaired pH1N1 nasopharyngeal shedding (16 of 118 children [14%, 95% CI 8·0–21·1] with shedding at day 2 after administration of LAIV) compared with H3N2 (54 of 118 [46%, 36·6–55·2]; p
Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

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The use of a good vaccine adjuvant may induce the higher immunogenicity profile of vaccine antigens. Here, we developed a new adjuvant by combining poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) with alum (PGA/Alum), and investigated its ability to enhance the immunogenicity and the cross-reactive efficacy of pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza vaccine antigen. PGA/Alum enhanced antigen delivery to draining lymph nodes and antigen-specific immunogenicity in mice using OVA as a model antigen. It also greatly increased OVA-specific antibody production, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
We describe how CD8+ CTL memory is established following influenza virus infection, and how a robust CTL recall response can lead to more rapid virus elimination by destroying virus-infected cells, and recovery. Exploiting long-term, cross-reactive CTL against the continuously evolving and unpredictable influenza viruses provides a possible mechanism for preventing a disastrous pandemic comparable to the 1918-1919 H1N1 “Spanish flu”, which killed more than 50 million people worldwide.
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
The high genetic variability of influenza A viruses poses a continual challenge to seasonal and pandemic vaccine development, leaving antiviral drugs as the first line of defence against antigenically different strains or new subtypes. As resistance against drugs targeting viral proteins emerges rapidly, we assessed the antiviral activity of already approved drugs that target cellular proteins involved in the viral life cycle and were orally bioavailable. Out of 15 candidate compounds, 4 were able to inhibit infection by ten- to hundredfold without causing toxicity, in vitro. Two of the drugs, dextromethorphan and ketotife...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Mark K. Slifka1* and Ian J. Amanna2 1Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health &Science University, Beaverton, OR, United States2Najít Technologies, Inc., Beaverton, OR, United States Vaccines play a vital role in protecting our communities against infectious disease. Unfortunately, some vaccines provide only partial protection or in some cases vaccine-mediated immunity may wane rapidly, resulting in either increased susceptibility to that disease or a requirement for more booster vaccinations in order to maintain immunity above a protective level. The durability of a...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In conclusion, the reported results highlight the importance of AIV attachment to trachea in many avian species. Finally, the importance of chickens and mallards in AIVs dynamics was illustrated by the abundant AIV attachment observed. Introduction Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are pathogens of global concern in both human and veterinary medicine (Webster et al., 1992; Stöhr, 2002; Olsen et al., 2006; Wiethoelter et al., 2015). Wild birds are well-described hosts of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) and longitudinal surveillance studies have demonstrated a plethora of low pathogenic AIVs (LPAIVs) circulating in wild...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Human challenge studies and systems biology approaches are important tools that should be used in concert to advance our understanding of influenza infection and provide targets for novel therapeutics and immunizations. Introduction Although influenza virus was recognized as an important pathogen over a century ago, influenza continues to cause a significant burden of disease. In the United States alone, it's estimated that in the 2017–2018 season there were 959,000 hospitalizations related to influenza illness, and 79,400 deaths (CDC, 2018). Worldwide, WHO estimates that annual influenza...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
The objective of this preclinical study was to assess the protective immunity induced by immunization with group 1 hemagglutinin-specific influenza virus vaccines based on chimeric hemagglutinins (cHAs) in a ferret model of influenza. The experimental designs and immunization strategies are summarized in Figure 1. Since most human adults have a primed repertoire of B cells with specificity to the HA stalk domain (19, 30), we included an influenza B virus expressing cH9/1 (B-cH9/1) to mimic pre-existing HA stalk immunity. We then compared the ability of our sequential immunization strategies to boost antibody titers against...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study, we used a swine pH1N1 challenge virus to investigate the efficacy of whole inactivated virus vaccines homologous or heterologous to the challenge virus as well as a commercial vaccine. We found that vaccine-mediated protection was most effective when vaccine antigen and challenge virus were homologous and correlated with the specific production of neutralising antibodies and a cellular response to the challenge virus. We conclude that a conventional whole inactivated SwIV vaccine must be antigenically matched to the challenge strain to be an effective control measure. PMID: 30914224 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 March 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Svenja Mamerow, Robert Scheffter, Susanne Röhrs, Olga Stech, Ulrike Blohm, Theresa Schwaiger, Charlotte Schröder, Reiner Ulrich, Jan Schinköthe, Martin Beer, Thomas C. Mettenleiter, Jürgen StechAbstractInfluenza A viruses (IAV) have caused seasonal epidemics and severe pandemics in humans. Novel pandemic strains as in 2009 may emerge from pigs, serving as perpetual virus reservoir. However, reliably effective vaccination has remained a key issue for humans and swine. Here, we generated a novel double-attenuated inf...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
The flu season is up and running in the Northern Hemisphere, and early signs in both the United States and Europe are that the effects might not be quite as severe as the brutal 2017/18 season. The United States is predominantly seeing H1N1 circulating, while monitoring in Europe has identified co-circulation of H1N1 and H3N2—both varieties of Influenza A that should be covered by the seasonable vaccine. What if they weren’t though? Influenza A can be found in both human and animal populations, and it evolves rapidly through genetic mutation. Each year many humans rely on their country&a...
Source: MDDI - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: IVD Source Type: news
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