A systematic review of antimicrobial resistance of typhoidal Salmonella in India.

A systematic review of antimicrobial resistance of typhoidal Salmonella in India. Indian J Med Res. 2019 Feb;149(2):151-163 Authors: Britto CD, John J, Verghese VP, Pollard AJ Abstract Background &objectives: The temporal trends in the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi in India have not been systematically reported. We aimed to systematically review the temporal AMR trends (phenotypic and molecular mechanisms) in bacterial isolates from patients with enteric fever over two decades in India. Methods: To identify trends in AMR in India, resistance patterns among 4611 individual S. Typhi isolates and 800 S. Paratyphi A isolates, reported from 1992 to 2017 in 40 publications, were analysed. Molecular resistance determinants were extracted from 22 publications and also reviewed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Articles were sourced using a predefined search strategy from different databases. Results: The analyses suggested that multidrug-resistant (MDR) enteric fever was declining in India and being replaced by fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance. Mutations in gyrA and parC were key mechanisms responsible for FQ resistance, whereas MDR was largely driven by resistance determinants encoded on mobile genetic elements (plasmids, transposons). Interpretation &conclusions: The results reflect the effect of antimicrobial pressure which has been driving AMR in typhoidal Salmonell...
Source: The Indian Journal of Medical Research - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Indian J Med Res Source Type: research

Related Links:

Abstract Understanding patterns and trends of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Salmonella Typhi can guide empiric treatment recommendations and contribute to country decisions about typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) introduction. We systematically reviewed PubMed and Web of Science for articles reporting the proportion of Salmonella Typhi isolates resistant to individual antimicrobials worldwide from any time period. Isolates resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were classified as multidrug resistant (MDR), and isolates that were MDR plus resistant to a fluoroquinolone and a t...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
In this study, a total of 457 (380 ST, 77 SPA) blood isolates were collected from three tertiary care hospitals in Kolkata during 2014-18. Additionally, 66 (3.4%) ST and 5 (0.25%) SPA were recovered from blood culture of 1962 patients attending OPD of one pediatric hospital during 2016-18. The study isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles; AMR genes; molecular sub-types by PFGE, MLVA and CRISPR. Among the total 446 ST and 82 SPA isolates, fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance was very common in both serovars. Ciprofloxacin resistance of 24.9% and 9.8% &ofloxacin resistance of 20.9% and 87.8% were fou...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Conclusions: The higher prevalence of ESBL producingSalmonella typhi clinical strains raises the concern about transmission prevention and infection management in the community as well as clinical settings. Moreover, the study highlights the problem concerning the declining antibiotic arsenal for the therapeutic management of typhoid fever and the emergence and spread of XDR strains in Pakistan.
Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionThe current findings provide valuable data for understanding the multidrug resistance and pathogenic characteristics of clinical Salmonella Paratyphi A isolates.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe current findings provide valuable data for understanding the multidrug resistance and pathogenic characteristics of Salmonella Paratyphi A in medicine.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Conclusion The present results demonstrated that Chilean salmon farms play an important role as reservoirs of sulfonamide- and trimethoprim-resistant bacteria. The prevalence of conjugative plasmids and integrons among sul-carrying bacteria suggests these bacteria, mainly belonging to the Pseudomonas genus may contribute to high spread of bacterial resistance to sulfonamides and other antibacterials in environments associated with Chilean salmon farms. This is the first study reporting the occurrence of transferable sul and dfr genes and integrons among the antimicrobial resistant bacteria associated with Chilean salmonid...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This report describes the dynamics of FQ-associated mutations in the highly resistant in FQ mutants in S. Enteritidis. In addition, we characterized a deletion in the ramRA integenic region, demonstrating that this frequent mutation in the highly resistant FQ mutants provide resistance or reduce susceptibility to multiple families of antibiotics. Introduction Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a major zoonotic pathogen worldwide (Bangtrakulnonth et al., 2004; Scallan et al., 2011). Infections caused by this pathogen have been mainly associated with gastroenteritis, an acute self-limiting intestinal infection. Howeve...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Enteric-fever is a major public-health problem in India. Emergence of multidrug-resistant, Nalidixic-acid resistant and extremely-drug resistant Salmonella mandates ongoing surveillance for targeted empirical therapy and containment of spread. Repeated epidemics call for water, sanitation, hygiene and vaccination strategies to sustain herd-immunity. PMID: 30664444 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Acta Medica: Hradec Kralove - Category: General Medicine Tags: Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove) Source Type: research
Purpose of review Enteric fever remains a major global-health concern, estimated to be responsible for between 11.9 and 26.9 million cases annually. Long-term prevention of enteric fever will require improved access to safe drinking water combined with investment in sanitation and hygiene interventions. In the short-to-medium term, new control strategies for typhoid fever have arrived in the form of typhoid Vi-conjugate vaccines (TCVs), offering hope that disease control can be achieved in the near future. Recent findings The diagnosis of enteric fever is complicated by its nonspecific clinical presentation, coupled w...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by A Clinton White and Gagandeep Kang Source Type: research
We report a total of 17,387 S. Typhi-positive and 8,286 S. Paratyphi A and B-positive specimens from 798,137 blood cultures performed. The results suggest an overall decline in typhoid incidence as S. Typhi positivity rates declined from 6.42% in 1992 to 1.32% in 2015 and S. Paratyphi (A and B) from 1.29% to 0.39%. Subgroup analysis suggests higher S. Typhi prevalence in adults older than 18 years, whereas S. Paratyphi is greater in aged children 5-18 years. The relative contribution of S. Paratyphi to overall confirmed cases increased from 16.8% in 1992 to 23% in 2015. The analysis suggests high burden of fluoroquinolone ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
More News: Antimicrobial Resistance | Biomedical Science | Databases & Libraries | Genetics | India Health | Multidrug Resistance | Research | Salmonella | Typhoid | Typhoid Vaccine | Vaccines