Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 573: Susceptibility of Chickens to Porcine Deltacoronavirus Infection

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 573: Susceptibility of Chickens to Porcine Deltacoronavirus Infection Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11060573 Authors: Liang Zhang Li Ding Wang Gao Guo Wei Hu Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel swine enteropathogenic coronavirus with worldwide distribution. PDCoV belongs to the Deltacoronavirus (DCoV) genus, which mainly includes avian coronaviruses (CoVs). PDCoV has the potential to infect human and chicken cells in vitro, and also has limited infectivity in calves. However, the origin of PDCoV in pigs, the host range, and cross-species infection of PDCoV still remain unclear. To determine whether PDCoV really has the ability to infect chickens in vivo, the three lines of chicken embryos and specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were inoculated with PDCoV HNZK-02 strain to investigate PDCoV infection in the current study. Our results indicated that PDCoV can infect chicken embryos and could be continuously passaged on them. Furthermore, we observed that PDCoV-inoculated chickens showed mild diarrhea symptoms and low fecal viral RNA shedding. PDCoV RNA could also be detected in multiple organs (lung, kidney, jejunum, cecum, and rectum) and intestinal contents of PDCoV-inoculated chickens until 17 day post-inoculation by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). A histology analysis indicated that PDCoV caused mild lesions in the lung, kidney, and intestinal tissues. These results prove the susceptibility of chickens to PDC...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research

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We examined the pathogenic effects of the viruses in chicken embryos and the size and morphology of the virus particles, performed phylogenetic analysis based on the S1 gene and complete genomic sequences, and examined the antibody responses against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). The results suggested that the viruses I0623/17 and I0710/17 were avian coronaviruses and were identified as pheasant coronaviruses (PhCoV), with greatest similarity to IBV. Further investigations of the antigenicity, complete genome organization, substitutions in multiple genes, and viral pathogenicity, replication, and shedding in chickens a...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
AbstractDespite the fact that vaccine resistance has been typically considered a rare phenomenon, some episodes of vaccine failure have been reported with increasing frequency in intensively-raised livestock. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a widespread avian coronavirus, whose control relies mainly on extensive vaccine administration. Unfortunately, the continuous emergence of new vaccine-immunity escaping variants prompts the development of new vaccines. In the present work, a molecular epidemiology study was performed to evaluate the potential role of homologous vaccination in driving IBV evolution. This was undert...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
J. Maier Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was first identified in Hong Kong in 2012 from samples taken from pigs in 2009. PDCoV was subsequently identified in the USA in 2014 in pigs with a history of severe diarrhea. The virus has now been detected in pigs in several countries around the world. Following the development of tissue culture adapted strains of PDCoV, it is now possible to address questions regarding virus–host cell interactions for this genera of coronavirus. Here, we presented a detailed study of PDCoV-induced replication organelles. All positive-strand RNA viruses induce the rearrangement of ...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
In conclusion, the IBVs circulating in southern China over the past decade have experienced a remarkable change in genetic diversity, dominant genotypes, and selection pressure, indicating the importance of permanent monitoring of circulating strains and the urgency for developing new vaccines to counteract the emerging LX4-type and New-type IBVs.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
We describe here three novel RNA viruses that we identified in oropharyngeal/cloacal swabs collected from wild birds. The complete genome of a novel gull metapneumovirus (GuMPV B29) was determined. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that this virus could represent a novel avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) sub-group, intermediate between AMPV-C and the subgroup of the other AMPVs. This virus was detected in an American herring (1/24, 4.2%) and great black-backed (4/26, 15.4%) gulls. A novel gull coronavirus (GuCoV B29) was detected in great black-backed (3/26, 11.5%) and American herring (2/24, 8.3%) gulls. Phylogenetic analyses of...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Abstract The coronavirus avian Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) poses economic threats to poultry farms worldwide, affecting the performance of both meat-type and egg-laying birds. To define the evolution of recent IBVs in Iran, a genetic analysis based on hypervariable nucleotide sequences of S1 gene was carried out. Tracheal swab samples were collected from 170 Broiler flocks during 2017. Ten tracheal swabs from each flock pooled. From a total number of 170 flocks tested, 84.71% found to be positive. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed the presence of D274 as a first time in Iran. IS/1494/06 was showed to be do...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research
Purpose of review Health agencies recommend transmission-based precautions, including contact, droplet and airborne precautions, to mitigate transmission of respiratory viruses in healthcare settings. There is particular controversy over the importance of aerosol transmission and whether airborne precautions should be recommended for some respiratory viruses. Here, we review the current recommendations of transmission-based precautions and the latest evidence on the aerosol transmission of respiratory viruses. Recent findings Viral nucleic acids, and in some instances viable viruses, have been detected in aerosols in ...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: NOSOCOMIAL AND HEALTHCARE RELATED INFECTIONS: Edited by Trish M. Perl Source Type: research
Emergence and re-emergence of respiratory virus infections represent a significant threat to global public health, as they occur seasonally and less frequently (such in the case of influenza virus) as pandemic infections. Some of these viruses have been in the human population for centuries and others had recently emerged as a public health problem. Influenza viruses have been affecting the human population for a long time now; however, their ability to rapidly evolve through antigenic drift and antigenic shift causes the emergence of new strains. A recent example of these events is the avian-origin H7N9 influenza virus ou...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
CP Abstract In backyard farms of Lao People's Democratic Republic, mixed-species rearing of poultry is a breeding-ground for cross-species transmission. Here, the epidemiology of viruses circulating among backyard poultry in Vientiane Province was assessed to guide future control strategies. Oral/tracheal and cloacal swabs, collected from 605 poultry (308 ducks, 297 chickens) between 2011 and 2015, were screened by PCR for Newcastle disease virus (NDV), Coronavirus (CoV) and Chicken Anemia Virus (CAV). Chicken sera were screened for anti-NDV antibodies by ELISA. Statistical and phylogenetic analyses revealed tran...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
cute;lint Á, Oláh I Abstract The aim of this immunocytochemical study was to compare mannose-binding lectin (MBL) production induced by avian coronavirus in the spleen and caecal tonsil (CT). One-day-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were experimentally infected with six QX field isolates and the H120 vaccine strain. In the negative control birds, the spleen was MBL negative, while the CT showed scattered MBL-positive cells in close proximity and within the surface epithelium and germinal centre (GC)-like cell clusters. MBL was detectable in the ellipsoid-associated cells (EACs) and cell clus...
Source: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tags: Acta Vet Hung Source Type: research
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