Neuronal Regulation of Immunity in the Skin and Lungs.

Neuronal Regulation of Immunity in the Skin and Lungs. Trends Neurosci. 2019 Jun 15;: Authors: Blake KJ, Jiang XR, Chiu IM Abstract The nervous and immune systems are classically studied as two separate entities. However, their interactions are crucial for maintaining barrier functions at tissues constantly exposed to the external environment. We focus here on the role of neuronal signaling in regulating the immune system at two major barriers: the skin and respiratory tract. Barrier tissues are heavily innervated by sensory and autonomic nerves, and are densely populated by resident immune cells, allowing rapid, coordinated responses to noxious stimuli, as well as to bacterial and fungal pathogens. Neural release of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides allows fast communication with immune cells and their recruitment. In addition to maintaining homeostasis and fighting infections, neuroimmune interactions are also implicated in several chronic inflammatory conditions such as atopic dermatitis (AD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and asthma. PMID: 31213389 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

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AbstractInvariant and semi-invariant T cells are emerging as important regulators of host environment interactions at barrier tissues such as the airway and skin. In contrast to conventional T cells, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells express T cell receptors of very limited diversity. iNKT and MAIT cells recognise antigens presented by the MHC class 1-like monomorphic molecules CD1d and MR1, respectively. Both iNKT cells and MAIT cells have been identified in the skin and airways and can rapidly produce cytokines after activation. Numerous studies have implicated iNKT c...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
This study was supported by grants from GSK and the UK Medical Research Council (U105178805). Conflict of Interest Statement AM has grant funding from GSK and AstraZeneca/MedImmune. MB, DJ, AP, DT, and AvO are employees of GSK. The remaining authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Acknowledgments We are grateful to the Ares staff, genotyping facility, and flow cytometry core for their technical assistance. We thank Jen Walker for advice on the manuscript. Supplementary Material The Supplem...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In conclusion, these results might be useful in the designing of new and potential lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors. PMID: 29468959 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Combinatorial Chemistry and High Throughput Screening - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Comb Chem High Throughput Screen Source Type: research
ConclusionEarly asthma was associated with significantly increased risks of any infection, pneumonia and any non‐respiratory tract infection in never and ever smokers. In never smokers, risk estimates as well as population attributable fractions for any infection were comparable between asthma and diabetes, suggesting that asthma may be a substantial risk factor for infections in the general population.
Source: Journal of Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
ConclusionEarly asthma was associated with significantly increased risks of any infection, pneumonia and any non‐respiratory tract infection in never and ever smokers. In never smokers, risk estimates as well as population attributable fractions for any infection were comparable between asthma and diabetes, suggesting that asthma may be a substantial risk factor for infections in the general population.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Source: Journal of Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Original Source Type: research
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Source: British Journal of Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Research Letter Source Type: research
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 28334421 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The British Journal of Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Br J Dermatol Source Type: research
AbstractAsthma is a highly prevalent chronic disease of the airways; approximately 10% of patients with asthma will experience a severe form of the disease. New understanding of the pathogenesis of asthma has enabled the development of novel drugs and provided hope for patients with asthma. Interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-5 receptor subunit α (IL-5-Rα) plays a crucial role in the development, maturation, and operation of eosinophils so were the first important therapeutic target of these new drugs. While the results of early clinical trials of these drugs were not promising, results improved once researchers discover...
Source: Drug Safety - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Introduction Asthma is one of the most frequently diagnosed respiratory diseases in the UK, and commonly co-occurs with other respiratory and allergic diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and atopic dermatitis. Previous studies have shown an increased risk of lung cancer related to asthma, but the evidence is mixed when accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases and allergic conditions. A systematic review of published data that investigate the relationship between asthma and lung cancer, accounting for co-occurring respiratory and allergic diseases, will be conducted to investigate the inde...
Source: BMJ Open - Category: Journals (General) Authors: Tags: Open access, Epidemiology, Oncology, Respiratory medicine Protocol Source Type: research
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Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: 1.11 Clinical Problems - Asthma Source Type: research
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