New Zealand White Rabbits Effectively Clear Borrelia burgdorferi B31 despite the Bacteriums Functional vlsE Antigenic Variation System Cellular Microbiology: Pathogen-Host Cell Molecular Interactions

Borrelia burgdorferi is a tick-borne bacterium responsible for approximately 300,000 annual cases of Lyme disease (LD) in the United States, with increasing incidences in other parts of the world. The debilitating nature of LD is mainly attributed to the ability of B. burgdorferi to persist in patients for many years despite strong anti-Borrelia antibody responses. Antimicrobial treatment of persistent infection is challenging. Similar to infection of humans, B. burgdorferi establishes long-term infection in various experimental animal models except for New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits, which clear the spirochete within 4 to 12 weeks. LD spirochetes have a highly evolved antigenic variation vls system, on the lp28-1 plasmid, where gene conversion results in surface expression of the antigenically variable VlsE protein. VlsE is required for B. burgdorferi to establish persistent infection by continually evading otherwise potent antibodies. Since the clearance of B. burgdorferi is mediated by humoral immunity in NZW rabbits, the previously reported results that LD spirochetes lose lp28-1 during rabbit infection could potentially explain the failure of B. burgdorferi to persist. However, the present study unequivocally disproves that previous finding by demonstrating that LD spirochetes retain the vls system. However, despite the vls system being fully functional, the spirochete fails to evade anti-Borrelia antibodies of NZW rabbits. In addition to being protective against homolo...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Cellular Microbiology: Pathogen-Host Cell Molecular Interactions Source Type: research

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This study presented examples of base-calling DNA sequencing electropherograms routinely generated in a clinical diagnostic laboratory on DNA extracts of human blood specimens and ticks collected from human skin bites and from the environment. Since some of the tick samples tested were collected in Ireland, borrelial species or strains not known to exist in the United States were also detected by analysis of this 16S rRNA “core genome”. We recommend that hospital laboratories located in Lyme disease endemic areas begin to use a “core genome” sequencing test to routinely diagnose spir...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Publication date: July 2019Source: Biomedicine &Pharmacotherapy, Volume 115Author(s): Hua Zhao, Xiting Dai, Xinlin Han, Aihua Liu, Fukai Bao, Ruolan Bai, Zhenhua Ji, Miaomiao Jian, Zhe Ding, Manzama-Esso Abi, Taigui Chen, Lisha Luo, Mingbiao Ma, Lvyan TaoAbstractLyme disease, reffered to as Lyme borreliosis, is a tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes. Lyme arthritis, the most common, serious and harmful manifestation during the late stages of Lyme disease, is closely associated with the Borrelia burgdorferi basic membrane protein A (BmpA). Chemokines are also reported to have an importa...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Abstract Lyme disease, reffered to as Lyme borreliosis, is a tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes. Lyme arthritis, the most common, serious and harmful manifestation during the late stages of Lyme disease, is closely associated with the Borrelia burgdorferi basic membrane protein A (BmpA). Chemokines are also reported to have an important role in Lyme arthritis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize and bind to pathogen-associated molecules which are structurally conserved among microbes, to activate transcriptional events, including cytokine production, inflammation, and tissue da...
Source: Biomedicine and pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine and pharmacotherapie - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Biomed Pharmacother Source Type: research
Charlotte Mason1, Xiaoyan Liu2, Spoorthy Prabhudeva1 and Zhiming Ouyang1* 1Department of Molecular Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, United States 2Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States BosR, a Fur family member, is essential for the pathogenesis of the Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi. Unlike typical Fur proteins in which DNA binding represses gene expression, binding of BosR to the rpoS promoter directly activates rpoS transcription in B. burgdorferi. However, virtually nothing is known concerning potential structural fea...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract Lyme disease (borreliosis) is a tick-borne bacterial infection caused by the spirochaete Borrelia burgdoferi, transmitted by hard-backed Ixodes ticks. Actual numbers of cases are increasing and it appears that the distribution across the UK is widening; however, it occurs most frequently in area of woodland, with temperate climate. It typically presents in mid to late summer. Lyme disease is a multisystem disease. The nervous system is the second most commonly affected system after the skin. Other systemic manifestations, such as carditis, keratitis, uveitis and inflammatory arthritis, rarely occur in Eur...
Source: Practical Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Pract Neurol Source Type: research
is the most common tick-borne illness in the USA and Europe. Pathogens involved are Borrelia burgdorferi in the USA and B. afzelii and B. garinii in Europe. The characteristic rash of erythema migrans occurs in approximately 75% of patients. Neurological disease, including facial palsy, meningoencephalitis, aseptic meningitis and polyradiculopathy, occurs in 10 –15%. Cardiac disease, primarily manifest as heart block, is seen in 1–2%. Arthritis is seen as a late complication in about 30%.
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Bacterial infections Source Type: research
Ticks and the diseases they carry have long been recognized as health concerns, especially in the warmer months when ticks (and humans) are more active. Ticks wait on grass tips or shrubs to latch onto new hosts when they brush by. Most of the hosts are animals, but a few tick species do bite and feed on humans. While doing so, they can transmit bacteria and viruses through their saliva. But here’s what’s changing: Tick species are being found in a wider geographic range. The number of case reports of tick-borne illnesses is increasing. Scientists continue to identify new pathogens (bacteria and viruses that c...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health Infectious diseases Prevention Safety Travel health Source Type: blogs
Ticks and the diseases they carry have long been recognized as health concerns, especially in the warmer months when ticks (and humans) are more active. Ticks wait on grass tips or shrubs to latch onto new hosts when they brush by. Most of the hosts are animals, but a few tick species do bite and feed on humans. While doing so, they can transmit bacteria and viruses through their saliva. But here’s what’s changing: Tick species are being found in a wider geographic range. The number of case reports of tick-borne illnesses is increasing. Scientists continue to identify new pathogens (bacteria and viruses that c...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health Infectious diseases Prevention Safety Travel health Source Type: blogs
CONCLUSION: PET/CT imaging with [(18)F]FDG is a reliable method to longitudinally monitor the development and progression of B. burgdorferi infection-induced inflammation in vivo in mouse joints. PMID: 28649922 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology - Category: Rheumatology Authors: Tags: Scand J Rheumatol Source Type: research
Growing up a musically-obsessed child in the 80's, Daryl Hall was one of my biggest inspirations. A masterful, inventive songwriter with an ocean of soul, he set me on the path to being an artist, to never waste a word, and to sing because I mean it. With six number ones and five additional top ten hits throughout the 70's and 80's Daryl Hall and John Oates are the number one duo in music history. Still at the top of his game at 69 years old, Daryl has won legions of new fans with his hit MTV Live show Live From Daryl's House. In February of 2015, at my very sickest from chronic Lyme and Bartonella, after it was missed b...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - Category: Science Source Type: news
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