Role of human prefrontal cortex in the modulation of conditioned eyeblink responses.

Role of human prefrontal cortex in the modulation of conditioned eyeblink responses. Behav Brain Res. 2019 Jun 15;:112027 Authors: Nardone R, Langthaler PB, Höller Y, Golaszewski S, Versace V, Sebastianelli L, Brigo F, Saltuari L, Trinka E Abstract Classical conditioning of the eyeblink reflex (EBC) is a simple form of associative motor learning. EBC is heavily dependent on cerebellar function, but experimental studies also suggest that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) orchestrates a neuronal network which interacts with the cerebellum to mediate the conditioned eyeblink responses (CR). To further investigate the role of PFC for EBC in humans, we aimed in this study at assessing whether acquisition of CR can be modulated by focal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) given as theta burst stimulation (TBS) over the dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC). A standard delay conditioning paradigm with a 540 ms tone as conditioned stimulus (CS) coterminating with a 100 ms air puff as unconditioned stimulus (US) was used in a total of 60 healthy subjects (35 female, 25 male, mean age 28.4 ± 2.4 years). One hundred paired CS-US trials and 30 extinction CS alone trials were given. TBS was applied over the DLPFC ipsilaterally to the US during the acquisition phase. Subjects were randomly assigned to three groups (n = 20) using excitatory intermittent TBS (iTBS), inhibitory continuous TBS (cTBS) or sham stimulation. ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

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Conclusions: While negative affect was associated with a biomarker of sympathetic stimulation, positive affect was not protective against such stimulation. PMID: 31605601 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Advances in Mind Body Medicine - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Adv Mind Body Med Source Type: research
This report demonstrates the variable cardiac rhythm in two species of subterranean mole, the large Japanese mole (Mogera wogura) and the lesser Japanese mole (Mogera imaizumii). The phenomenon was revealed using X-ray videos ofM. wogura and investigated in detail using electrocardiogram (ECG) traces recorded with implanted electrodes in this species andM. imaizumii. Cessation of heartbeat and extendedR–R intervals were observed in the ECGs from both species during short bouts of rest in wakeful specimens of both species under normoxic conditions at room temperature. The mean durations ofR–R intervals were 288....
Source: Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Authors: Toraih EA, Ameen HM, Hussein MH, Youssef Elabd AA, Mohamed AM, Abdel-Gawad AR, Fawzy MS Abstract Alopecia areata (AA) is a non-scarring hair loss of autoimmune etiology. The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene is believed to be an important driver in AA pathogenesis. Genetic variants can alter mRNA expression levels which may provoke an autoimmune response. A total of 337 males (97 AA patients and 240 controls) were enrolled in the current case-control study. On screening of the most frequent variants in the gene, rs2075876 (A/G) polymorphism in intron 5 was selected and genotyped using Real-Time PCR (polymer...
Source: Immunological Investigations - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Immunol Invest Source Type: research
The sympathetic nervous system participates significantly in the regulation of immune functions. In support of this, data indicate that besides vagal afferent and efferent pathway, sympathetic nerves represent crucial component of inflammatory reflex. In addition, it was shown that efferent arm of this reflex might be activated by ACTH. Therefore, we investigated the effect of chemical sympathectomy on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced increases in plasma IL-1 β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in rats. Plasma IL-10 and corticosterone levels were also evaluated.
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
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Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
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Source: Physiological Reports - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Original Research Source Type: research
This study was designed to assess the cardioprotective effects of acute physical stress against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury through the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into four groups; (1) IR (n = 8): rats underwent I/R, (2) Acute stress (St+IR) (n = 8): physical stress induced 1-hour before I/R, (3) Sympathectomy (Symp+IR) (n = 8): chemical sympathectomy was done 24-hours before I/R and (4) Sympathectomy- physical stress (Symp+St+IR) (n = 8): chemical sympathectomy induced before physical stress and I/R. Chemical sympathectomy was performed using 6-hyd...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
This study was designed to assess the cardioprotective effects of acute physical stress against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury through the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into four groups; (1) IR (n = 8): rats underwent I/R, (2) Acute stress (St+IR) (n = 8): physical stress induced 1-hour before I/R, (3) Sympathectomy (Symp+IR) (n = 8): chemical sympathectomy was done 24-hours before I/R and (4) Sympathectomy- physical stress (Symp+St+IR) (n = 8): chemical sympathectomy induced before physical stress and I/R. Chemical sympathectomy was performed using 6-hyd...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Immediate reflex HPV 16/18/45 genotyping of mRNA HPV-positive, cytology-negative patients led to early colposcopic referral and histopathologic diagnoses of three difficult-to-detect, low-stage, cervical adenocarcinomas and significantly increased overall early detection of CIN2+ lesions. PMID: 31603212 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: American Journal of Clinical Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Am J Clin Pathol Source Type: research
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