Eosinophils: Nemeses of Pulmonary Pathogens?

AbstractPurpose of ReviewEosinophils are short-lived granulocytes that contain a variety of proteins and lipids traditionally associated with host defense against parasites. The primary goal of this review is to examine more recent evidence that challenged this rather outdated role of eosinophils in the context of pulmonary infections with helminths, viruses, and bacteria.Recent FindingsWhile eosinophil mechanisms that counter parasites, viruses, and bacteria are similar, the kinetics and impact may differ by pathogen type. Major antiparasitic responses include direct killing and immunoregulation, as well as some mechanisms by which parasite survival/growth is supported. Antiviral defenses may be as unembellished as granule protein-induced direct killing or more urbane as serving as a conduit for better adaptive immune responses to the invading virus. Although sacrificial, eosinophil DNA emitted in response to bacteria helps trap bacteria to limit dissemination. Herein, we discuss the current research redefining eosinophils as multifunctional cells that are active participants in host defense against lung pathogens.SummaryEosinophils recognize and differentially respond to invading pathogens, allowing them to deploy innate defense mechanisms to contain and clear the infection, or modulate the immune response. Modern technology and animal models have unraveled hitherto unknown capabilities of this surreptitious cell that indubitably has more functions awaiting discovery.
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
Monoclonal antibodies block specific inflammatory pathways involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. These pathways are important in host defense against pathogens, and in particular, against parasites. Despite theoretical concerns about infection risk, biologics seem to have a favorable safety profile. Data from large clinical trials and postmarketing surveillance for these drugs have not shown increases in severe infections, including those from parasitic organisms. This may be due to redundancy of effector cells within the immune system. Certain drugs have special considerations and precautions, and therefore, the prescri...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
The interaction between asthma and infections is a complicated one, and that is the focus of this issue of the Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America. Infections, both viral and bacterial, have been associated with development and exacerbation of asthma, while parasitic infections may actually help protect against asthma. Furthermore, as our drug armamentarium begins to focus on biologics, which can selectively impair components of the immune response, there is concern that treated patients with asthma will be at risk of developing opportunistic infections.
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Preface Source Type: research
Examining the impact of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites on human disease has been a complicated undertaking that began centuries ago and has led to profound effects on human history, including the development of interventions such as sanitation technologies, antibiotics, and vaccinations. In recent decades, we have also begun to appreciate the potential detrimental effects of altering natural patterns of microbial species that coexist with us, including the importance of changes in the early-life microbiome on the development of asthma and other allergic diseases.
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Foreword Source Type: research
Alessandro Poggi1*, Roberto Benelli2, Roberta Venè1, Delfina Costa1, Nicoletta Ferrari1, Francesca Tosetti1 and Maria Raffaella Zocchi3 1Molecular Oncology and Angiogenesis Unit, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy 2Immunology Unit, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy 3Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy It is well established that natural killer (NK) cells are involved in both innate and adaptive immunity. Indeed, they can recognize molecules induced at the cell surface by stress signals ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Sean P. Saunders1, Erica G. M. Ma1,2, Carlos J. Aranda1 and Maria A. Curotto de Lafaille1,3* 1Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Laboratory of Allergy and Inflammation, Department of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY, United States 2Sackler Institute of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, New York University, New York, NY, United States 3Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States The long-term effectiveness of antibody responses relies on the development of humoral immune memory. Humoral immunity is maintained by long-lived plasma ce...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study we found blocking autophagy led to increased CP growth in both macrophages and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. In vivo, loss of the autophagy elongation component ATG16L1 specifically in myeloid cells led to increased mortality in response to CP infection, characterized by greater numbers of neutrophils and dendritic cells, but no change in the CP burden in the lungs. This was accompanied by an increase in inflammasome-active macrophages and IL-1β production. While induction of autophagy in macrophages led to reduced CP growth in vitro, in vivo treatment with rapamycin led to increased mortality of infected...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This study also revealed adenosine as a novel danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP), responsible for initiating helminth-induced type-2 responses, through activation of ILC2s. Additional receptors reported to be highly expressed by ILC2s and required for their expansion and function include the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor superfamily member DR3 (TNFRSF25) and the IL-9R. In the absence of TL1A ligation to DR3, there is significantly reduced ILC2 expansion, type-2 cytokine production and N. brasiliensis expulsion (74), whereas IL-9R signaling was required for ILC2 accumulation, expulsion of N. brasiliensis and...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Discussion There are numerous microbial communities inhabited in the human body, which is critical to human health. The relationship between human microbiome and diseases received much attention from both medical and bioinformatics community recently. However, traditional methods to detect their association is costly and labor-intensive. Thus, we proposed here a new computational model called NBLPIHMDA to infer potential microbe-disease associations. NBLPIHMDA first combined known microbe-disease associations in HMDAD and the Gaussian interaction profile kernel similarity to construct disease similarity network and microb...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusion Human microbiome is normal flora for humans, which has been proved to be of symbiotic relationship with humans and harmless to humans. If the microbes that breed in the human body become “unhealthy,” it will definitely affect the host's physical condition. People are continuing to explore the pathologic relationship between microorganisms and the human body through high-throughput sequencing technologies and analysis systems. However, it is a pity that their pathogenesis cannot be fully understood as yet. Considering that relying only on conventional experimental methods is time-consuming an...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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