TGF- β Signaling Interferes With the Drosophila Innate Immune and Metabolic Response to Parasitic Nematode Infection

The common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is an outstanding model to study the molecular basis of anti-pathogen immunity. The parasitic nematode Heterorhabditis gerrardi, together with its mutualistic bacteria Photorhabdus asymbiotica, infects a wide range of insects, including D. melanogaster. Recently we have shown that Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-ß) signaling in D. melanogaster is regulated in response to parasitic nematode infection. In the current study, we investigated the contribution of two TGF-ß signaling branches, the activin and the Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMP), to D. melanogaster immune function against H. gerrardi. We used D. melanogaster larvae carrying mutations in the genes coding for the TGF-ß extracellular ligands daw and dpp. We have demonstrated that the number of circulating hemocytes in uninfected daw and dpp mutants decreases 2-fold compared to background controls, yet no significant changes in hemocyte numbers and survival of the TGF-ß mutants are observed upon nematode infection. However, we have shown that nematode-infected daw mutants express Dual oxidase at higher levels and phenoloxidase activity at lower levels compared to their background controls. To elucidate the contribution of TGF-ß signaling in the metabolic response of D. melanogaster to parasitic nematodes, we estimated lipid and carbohydrate levels in daw and dpp mutant larvae infected with H. gerrardi. We have found that both nematode-infe...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research

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Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Volume 297Author(s): Tong Zhang, Xiang Ren, Dawei Fan, Xuan Kuang, Huan Wang, Dan Wu, Qin WeiAbstractProcalcitonin (PCT) is a kind of protein exists in the human blood. If the human bodies are infected with bacteria, fungi or parasites, the value of PCT in blood will be significantly raised. Thereby, we report an electrochemical immunosensor for measurement of PCT using gold nanoparticle (Au NP) decorated CeO2-CuO (CeO2-CuO-Au) as the platform and thionine modified Au@Ag heterojunction nanorods (Au@Ag-Th) as signal labels. Au NP decorated CeO2-CuO ...
Source: Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2019Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: BiologyAuthor(s): Sekar Vijayakumar, Balasubramanian Malaikozhundan, Kandasamy Saravanakumar, Esteban F. Durán-Lara, Myeong-Hyeon Wang, Baskaralingam VaseeharanAbstractFacile and low cost garlic clove extract based silver nanoparticles was synthesized and its broad spectrum of therapeutic activity including antibiofilm, antiparasitic and anti-breast cancer activity was evaluated. The synthesized garlic‑silver nanoparticles (G-AgNPs) were characterized by various physico-chemical techniques. G-AgNPs showed good opti...
Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology - Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research
We report the case of a 51-year-old man who received a heart transplantation and presented with a reactivation of the disease. The molecular characterization of the parasite showed that the reactivation was related to specific infection by a DTU I (TcISYL) parasite.
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research
Conclusions. Plasmodium falciparum malaria was characterized by depression of cellular and humoral immunity, the degree of which depended on the severity of the pathological process. PMID: 31308850 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research
In this study we surveyed 46 green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, on the Ogasawara Islands, Japan, and blood flukes were detected in the heart and blood vessels of 26 turtles. The flukes were identified as L. learedi based on a detailed morphological description. In addition, molecular identification and characterization of the parasite were performed. The nucleotide sequences of nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) regions were almost identical to those of L. learedi reported previously, but not to those of Hapalotrema spp., which is the closest related genus. The nucleotide sequences of the 28S ribosomal DNA region...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research
This report characterizes T. trichiura aDNA of pre-20th century East Asia, and in so doing, it also proves the potential of aDNA analysis for differential diagnosis of T. trichiura in cases where ancient parasite eggs are morphologically indeterminate for species identification. PMID: 31310584 [PubMed - in process]
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research
by Kit Kennedy, Simon A. Cobbold, Eric Hanssen, Jakob Birnbaum, Natalie J. Spillman, Emma McHugh, Hannah Brown, Leann Tilley, Tobias Spielmann, Malcolm J. McConville, Stuart A. Ralph Apicomplexan parasites possess a plastid organelle called the apicoplast. Inhibitors that selectively target apicoplast housekeeping functions, including DNA replication and protein translation, are lethal for the parasite, and several (doxycycline, clindamycin, and azithromycin) are in clinical u se as antimalarials. A major limitation of such drugs is that treated parasites only arrest one intraerythrocytic development cycle (approximately ...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - Category: Biology Authors: Source Type: research
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print.
Source: The American Naturalist - Category: Zoology Authors: Source Type: research
DiscussionThis review will map the evidence in the literature of the concomitant management of schistosomiasis by THPs and HCPs in communities with a high prevalent infection in LMICs. The review findings will be important for policy makers across the healthcare continuum and be used to inform stakeholders ’ consensus process to explore the development of a generic set of patient-centered quality indicators that are applicable to multiple care settings. It will also identify research gaps in schistosomiasis management in LMICs and provide direction for future research. The results will be disseminat ed through a peer...
Source: Systematic Reviews - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
This study enhances our understanding of how gut bacteria influence mosquito-Plasmodium interactions.
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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