The Impact of the Ketogenic Diet on Glial Cells Morphology. A Quantitative Morphological Analysis

Publication date: Available online 18 June 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): K. Gzielo, Z. Soltys, Z. Rajfur, Z.K. SetkowiczAbstractKetogenic diet is reported to protect against cognitive decline, drug-resistant epilepsy, Alzheimer's Disease, damaging effect of ischemic stroke and many neurological diseases. Despite mounting evidence that this dietary treatment works, the exact mechanism of its protective activity is largely unknown. Ketogenic diet acts systemically, not only changing GABA signaling in neurons, but also influencing the reliance on mitochondrial respiration, known to be disrupted in many neurological diseases. Normally, human body is driven by glucose while ketogenic diet mimics starvation and energy required for proper functioning comes from fatty acids oxidation. In the brain astrocytes are believed to be the sole neural cells capable of fatty oxidation.Here we try to explain that not exclusively neurons, but also morphological changes of astroglia and/or microglia due to different metabolic state are important for the mechanism underlying the protective role of ketogenic diet. By quantifying different parameters describing cellular morphology like ramification index or fractal dimension and using Principal Component Analysis to discover the regularities between them, we demonstrate that in normal adult rat brain, ketogenic diet itself is able to change glial morphology, indicating an important role of these underappreciated cells in the brain metabolism.Gr...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Suicide and Self-Harm Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 18 July 2019Source: The American Journal of SurgeryAuthor(s): Brigid K. Killelea, Emily J. Gallagher, Sheldon M. Feldman, Elisa Port, Tari King, Susan K. Boolbol, Rebeca Franco, Kezhen Fei, Derek Le Roith, Nina A. BickellAbstractIntroductionAlthough breast cancer incidence is higher among white women, black women are more likely to have aggressive tumors with less favorable histology, and to have a worse prognosis. Obesity and alcohol consumption have been identified as two modifiable risk factors for breast cancer, while physical activity may offer protection. Little however is known abo...
Source: The American Journal of Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The varied pharmacologic mechanisms of NBP involve many complex molecular mechanisms; however, there many unknown pharmacologic effects await further study. PMID: 31205106 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Chinese Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Chin Med J (Engl) Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The varied pharmacological mechanisms of NBP involve many complex molecular mechanisms; however, there many unknown pharmacological effects await further study.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0. PMID: 31107716 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Chinese Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Chin Med J (Engl) Source Type: research
Gui-Jiang Wei1,2, Ming-Qing Yuan1, Li-He Jiang1, Yu-Lan Lu3, Chun-Hong Liu3, Hong-Cheng Luo3, Hua-Tuo Huang3, Zong-Quan Qi1* and Ye-Sheng Wei1,2* 1Department of Cell Biology, Medical College of Guangxi University, Nanning, China 2Department of Medical Laboratory, Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University, Guilin, China 3Department of Medical Laboratory, Affiliated Hospital of Youjiang Medical University for Nationalities, Baise, China miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs modulating gene expression, and variants in miRNA genes are involved in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke (IS). However, the effect of mi...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Hongye Zhao1,2, Tiezheng Zheng1, Xiaohan Yang1, Ming Fan3, Lingling Zhu3, Shuhong Liu3, Liying Wu3 and Changkai Sun1,4* 1Department of Physiology and Key Laboratory of Brain Diseases of Liaoning Province, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China 2Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Qiqihar Medical University, Qiqihar, China 3Department of Brain Protection and Plasticity, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing, China 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineerin...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusions Stroke comprises ischemic stroke and ICH. The immuno-inflammatory process is involved in neural plasticity following events such as a hemorrhage or ischemic stroke. After ischemia, astrocytes, microglia, and MDMs play important roles during rehabilitation with the modulation of cytokines or chemokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1. Moreover, MiRNAs are also important posttranscriptional regulators in these glial mitochondrial responses to cerebral ischemia. ICH involves processes similar and different to those seen in ischemia, including neuronal injury, astrocytic and microglial/macrophage activation, and neu...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Fight Aging! provides a weekly digest of news and commentary for thousands of subscribers interested in the latest longevity science: progress towards the medical control of aging in order to prevent age-related frailty, suffering, and disease, as well as improvements in the present understanding of what works and what doesn't work when it comes to extending healthy life. Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. This content is...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 109 Author(s): Beatrice D'Orsi, Julia Mateyka, Jochen H.M. Prehn Neuronal cell death is often triggered by events that involve intracellular increases in Ca2+. Under resting conditions, the intracellular Ca2+ concentration is tightly controlled by a number of extrusion and sequestering mechanisms involving the plasma membrane, mitochondria, and ER. These mechanisms act to prevent a disruption of neuronal ion homeostasis. As these processes require ATP, excessive Ca2+ overloading may cause energy depletion, mitochondrial dysfunction, and may eventua...
Source: Neurochemistry International - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Authors: Geisler JG, Marosi K, Halpern J, Mattson MP Abstract Recent findings have elucidated roles for mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in neuronal plasticity and resistance to metabolic and oxidative stress. UCPs are induced by bioenergetic challenges such as caloric restriction and exercise and may protect neurons against dysfunction and degeneration. The pharmacological uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), which was once prescribed to>100,000 people as a treatment for obesity, stimulates several adaptive cellular stress-response signaling pathways in neurons including those involving the brain-derived ...
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research
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