Nipah virus - the rising epidemic: a review.

Nipah virus - the rising epidemic: a review. Infez Med. 2019 Jun 01;27(2):117-127 Authors: Ochani RK, Batra S, Shaikh A, Asad A Abstract The Nipah virus was discovered twenty years ago, and there is considerable information available regarding the specificities surrounding this virus such as transmission, pathogenesis and genome. Belonging to the Henipavirus genus, this virus can cause fever, encephalitis and respiratory disorders. The first cases were reported in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998, when affected individuals presented with severe febrile encephalitis. Since then, much has been identified about this virus. These single-stranded RNA viruses gain entry into target cells via a process known as macropinocytosis. The viral genome is released into the cell cytoplasm via a cascade of processes that involves conformational changes in G and F proteins which allow for attachment of the viral membrane to the cell membrane. In addition to this, the natural reservoirs of this virus have been identified to be fruit bats from the genus Pteropus. Five of the 14 species of bats in Malaysia have been identified as carriers, and this virus affects horses, cats, dogs, pigs and humans. Various mechanisms of transmission have been proposed such as contamination of date palm saps by bat feces and saliva, nosocomial and human-to-human transmissions. Physical contact was identified as the strongest risk factor for developing an infection in the 2004 Faridpur outbreak....
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Infez Med Source Type: research

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ConclusionOverweight and obesity was higher in males as compared to females, those who were in the upper class and those who were older than 23 years.
Source: Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
This article describes a case of a 41-year-old male, a chronic smoker with an actively bleeding, ulcerated, solitary, firm lesion on the lateral border of the tongue which had bled thrice before. A differential diagnosis of pyogenic granuloma, haemangioma, fibroma, nerve sheath tumour, salivary gland tumour and malignancy was made and surgically excised. Histopathology of the excised specimen revealed a well-circumscribed lesion with spindle-shaped cells arranged in interlacing fascicles and with the help of immunohistochemical markers confirmed it to be a PEN. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this is the first descriptio...
Source: Malaysian Journal of Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Malays J Pathol Source Type: research
We describe a case of a 33 years old gentleman who was clinically diagnosed as acute appendicitis at initial presentation in view of a one-week history of fever, right lower quadrant abdominal pain- and guarding at right iliac fossa. He had thrombocytopenia and lymphopenia on presentation. Mesenteric lymphadenitis and small bowel lesion were found intraoperatively, which was respectively biopsied and resected. Histopathological result confirms disseminated histoplasmosis. Retroviral screen was positive. He was treated with amphotericin B for one week, subsequently switched to oral itraconazole, followed by initiation of hi...
Source: Malaysian Journal of Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Malays J Pathol Source Type: research
We report a case of primary systemic ALK+ ALCL with a SC pattern that presented as secondary gastric lesions with a mixed LH and SC pattern that was masqueraded as inflammatory lesions. CASE REPORT: A 34-year-old woman with intractable epigastric pain was referred to have repeated endoscopy with biopsy. She was found to multiple gastric erosions and nodules that were diagnosed as inflammatory lesions both endoscopically and histologically. Meanwhile, she developed an acute onset of severe back pain associated with a pathologic compression fracture in the T3 thoracic vertebral body. Imaging studies disclosed a dissemina...
Source: Malaysian Journal of Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Malays J Pathol Source Type: research
We present the second case of IDC originating from an intraparotid lymph node (LN) with a more detailed description of the histogenesis, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and updated molecular information. CASE REPORT: An 87-year-old male had a tumour nodule over the left parotid tail for about 20 years. Physical examinations revealed a 4.5 cm soft, non-tender and fixed mass. After the left parotidectomy, pathology confirmed the diagnosis of IDC arising within an intraparotid lymph node. The cystic component of the tumour was lined by single to multilayered ductal cells with micropapillary growth pattern. The solid part showe...
Source: Malaysian Journal of Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Malays J Pathol Source Type: research
We present a case of an undifferentiated subtype of non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (NK-SCC) with sarcomatoid features in the nasopharynx in a 69-year-old man who was difficult to diagnose due to spindle-shaped malignant cells. He was admitted because of a right nasal obstruction and right headache, and imaging revealed a heterogeneously enhanced irregularly shaped mass at the nasopharynx. Histopathologically, the tumour was partially organised, and the tumour cells were epithelioid or spindle-shaped. Initially, we erroneously diagnosed the tumour as an angiosarcoma owing to its false-negative immunoreaction for c...
Source: Malaysian Journal of Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Malays J Pathol Source Type: research
We report a case of a 46-year-old Chinese male who presented with six months history of abdominal pain, weight loss and rectal bleeding. Diagnostic colonoscopy revealed multiple aphthous ulcers within the ileo-caecal region and distal transverse colon, separated by normal mucosa, mimicking skip lesions of Crohn's colitis. Computer topography (CT) scan of the abdomen showed multiple circumferential thickenings involving predominantly the right colon. A clinical diagnosis of colonic Crohn's disease with possible perforation was made. An extended right hemicolectomy was performed due to uncontrolled rectal bleeding. Histopath...
Source: Malaysian Journal of Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Malays J Pathol Source Type: research
We report cytomorphological features of two uncommon variants of acinic cell carcinoma. The first case was an eleven-year-old female with a nodular mass in parotid and the FNA smears demonstrated a lymphoepithelial lesion composed of epithelial tumour cells with features of acinar cells in a lymphoid background. The second case was a 62-year-old male with a large parotid mass. The FNA smears revealed presence of extracellular, acellular amyloid-like material with tumour cells arranged in follicles. DISCUSSION: Awareness of cytomorphological features of these unusual variants of acinic cell carcinoma may help to avoid d...
Source: Malaysian Journal of Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Malays J Pathol Source Type: research
Authors: Wan Ab Rahman WS, Abdullah WZ, Husin A, Nik Mohd Hassan NFF, Hassan MN, Zulkafli Z Abstract INTRODUCTION: Acquired haemophilia A (AHA) is a rare acquired bleeding disorder caused by polyclonal immunoglobulin G autoantibodies against clotting factor VIII (FVIII). The incidence was reported to be rare occurring in 0.2- 4 cases/million/year. Patients may present with different clinical manifestations to various specialties. Early recognition of the disease contributes to favourable clinical outcome. CASE SERIES: Here, we reported five cases of this disorder with different clinical presentations from two t...
Source: Malaysian Journal of Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Malays J Pathol Source Type: research
This study aims to determine the association between coronary artery PMCT CS with histologically observed calcification and degree of stenosis of coronary arteries in post-mortem cases. MATERIALS &METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 101 subjects recruited from the National Institute of Forensic Medicine (IPFN) Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL) over a period of 15 months, from December 2012 until April 2014. PMCT CS of the coronary arteries was calculated using Agatston-Janowitz score. Histological presence of calcification was observed and the degree of stenosis was calculated using an image analysis tech...
Source: Malaysian Journal of Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Malays J Pathol Source Type: research
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