Porcine Invariant Natural Killer T Cells: Functional Profiling and Dynamics in Steady State and Viral Infections

Pigs are important livestock and comprehensive understanding of their immune responses in infections is critical to improve vaccines and therapies. Moreover, similarities between human and swine physiology suggest that pigs are a superior animal model for immunological studies. However, paucity of experimental tools for a systematic analysis of the immune responses in pigs represent a major disadvantage. To evaluate the pig as a biomedical model and additionally expand the knowledge of rare immune cell populations in swine, we established a multicolor flow cytometry analysis platform of surface marker expression and cellular responses for porcine invariant Natural Killer T cells (iNKT). In humans, iNKT cells are among the first line defenders in various tissues, respond to CD1d-restricted antigens and become rapidly activated. Naïve porcine iNKT cells were CD3+/CD4–/CD8+ or CD3+/CD4–/CD8– and displayed an effector- or memory-like phenotype (CD25+/ICOS+/CD5hi/CD45RA–/CCR7±/CD27+). Based on their expression of the transcription factors T bet and the iNKT cell-specific promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (PLZF), porcine iNKT cells were differentiated into functional subsets. Analogous to human iNKT cells, in vitro stimulation of porcine leukocytes with the CD1d ligand -galactosylceramide resulted in rapid iNKT cell proliferation, evidenced by an increase in frequency and Ki-67 expression. Moreover, this approach revealed CD25, CD5, I...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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Source: Cancer Epidemiology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 July 2019Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and MedicineAuthor(s): Ashlynn L.Z. Lee, Chuan Yang, Shujun Gao, James L. Hedrick, Yi Yan YangAbstractProlonged vaccine release enables gradual immunostimulation, providing long-term immunity. Herein, Vitamin E- PEG-Vitamin E triblock ‘ABA’ hydrogel, which is formed through physical cross-linking of flower-shaped micelles and can reside in vivo for>17 weeks, was employed for delivery of cancer preventive vaccines to provide sustained anticancer immunity. Mice vaccinated with hydrogel formulations produced a sign...
Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
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Source: Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: Patients with GATA2 deficiency present with nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, severe viral infections (particularly refractory human papillomavirus disease), lymphedema, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and acute myeloid leukemia. Patients with GATA2 deficiency who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation prior to the development of life-threatening infections or cytogenetic abnormalities may have optimal clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article is to determine ways in which oncology nurses can identify GATA2 deficiency in patients early and optimize ...
Source: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing - Category: Nursing Authors: Tags: Clin J Oncol Nurs Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
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Source: Advances in Medical Sciences - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
From the European Congress of Virology in Rotterdam, Vincent and local co-host Ben Berkhout speak with Ron Fouchier, Rosina Girones, and Marie-Paule Kieny about their careers and their work on influenza virus, environmental virology, and developing an Ebola virus vaccine during an epidemic. Hosts: Vincent Racanielloand Ben Berkhout Guests: Ron Fouchier, Rosina Girones, and Marie-Paule Kieny Subscribe (free): iTunes, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Links for this episode ECV2019 Drift of human H2N2 viruses (J Viral) Viruses in urban sewage (Sci Tot Environ) Ebola ...
Source: This Week in Virology - MP3 Edition - Category: Virology Authors: Source Type: podcasts
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Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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