Current understanding of lymphatic vessels in the central nervous system

AbstractLymphangiogenesis is associated with some pathological conditions such as inflammation, tissue repair, and tumor growth. Recently, a paradigm shift occurred following the discovery of meningeal lymphatic structures in the human central nervous system (CNS); these structures may be a key drainage route for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) into the peripheral blood and may also contribute to inflammatory reaction and immune surveillance of the CNS. Lymphatic vessels located along the dural sinuses absorb CSF from the adjacent subarachnoid space and brain interstitial fluid via the glymphatic system, which is composed of aquaporin-4 water channels expressed on perivascular astrocytic end-feet membranes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) clearly visualized these lymphatic vessels in the human dura mater. The conception of some neurological disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer ’s disease, has been changed by this paradigm shift. Meningeal lymphatic vessels could be a promising therapeutic target for the prevention of neurological disorders. However, the involvement of meningeal lymphatic vessels in the pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated and is the subject of future investigations. In this article, to understand the involvement of meningeal lymphatic vessels in neurological disorders, we review the differences between lymphangiogenesis in the CNS and in other tissues during both developmental and adulthood stages, and pathological conditions that may...
Source: Neurosurgical Review - Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

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Abstract Anthocyanins, a class of water soluble flavonoids extracted from plants like berries and soybean seed, have been shown to display obvious anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic activities. They are recommended as a supplementation for prevention and/or treatment of disorders ranging from cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and cancer. In the central nervous system (CNS), anthocyanins and its major component cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) have been reported to produce preventive and/or therapeutic activities in a wide range of disorders, such as cerebral ischemia, Alzheimer's disease, ...
Source: European Journal of Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Eur J Pharmacol Source Type: research
As one of the five major senses, you could argue that our sense of smell is the least important. Sight, hearing, touch, and taste may poll better than smell, but try telling that to someone who has lost their sense of smell entirely. The truth is that loss of the ability to smell comes with a significant cost, because olfaction serves several purposes that affect quality of life and even safety, including stimulation of appetite enhancement of the sense of taste alerting you to which foods should not be eaten (if they’re rotting, for example) warning you of danger (as with smoke warning of fire). Loss of smell can ...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Alzheimer's Disease Brain and cognitive health Ear, nose, and throat Source Type: blogs
In this study, analysis of antioxidant defense was performed on the blood samples from 184 "aged" individuals aged 65-90+ years, and compared to the blood samples of 37 individuals just about at the beginning of aging, aged 55-59 years. Statistically significant decreases of Zn,Cu-superoxide dismutase (SOD-1), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were observed in elderly people in comparison with the control group. Moreover, an inverse correlation between the activities of SOD-1, CAT, and GSH-Px and the age of the examined persons was found. No age-related changes in glutathione reductas...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
AbstractCurcumin is widely consumed in Asia either as turmeric directly or as one of the culinary ingredients in food recipes. The benefits of curcumin in different organ systems have been reported extensively in several neurological diseases and cancer. Curcumin has got its global recognition because of its strong antioxidant, anti ‐inflammatory, anti‐cancer, and antimicrobial activities. Additionally, it is used in diabetes and arthritis as well as in hepatic, renal, and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, there is growing attention on usage of curcumin to prevent or delay the onset of neurodegenerative diseases. This...
Source: BioFactors - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research
Abstract Andrographolide is compound extracted from Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata), a traditional herb that has been used in ancient China and other parts of eastern Asia to treat an array of disorders, such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, diarrhea, upper respiratory tract infection, and laryngitis, for a very long history. The mechanisms of action of andrographolide in disease prevention and/or therapy include anti-inflammation, anti-oxidative stress, anti-apoptosis, and/or pro-apoptosis. Pharmacodynamic studies have shown that andrographolide can cross the blood brain barrier and distribute into differ...
Source: Biomedicine and pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine and pharmacotherapie - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Biomed Pharmacother Source Type: research
In this study, we found that cofilin competes with tau for direct microtubule binding in vitro, in cells, and in vivo, which inhibits tau-induced microtubule assembly. Genetic reduction of cofilin mitigates tauopathy and synaptic defects in Tau-P301S mice and movement deficits in tau transgenic C. elegans. The pathogenic effects of cofilin are selectively mediated by activated cofilin, as active but not inactive cofilin selectively interacts with tubulin, destabilizes microtubules, and promotes tauopathy. These results therefore indicate that activated cofilin plays an essential intermediary role in neurotoxic signaling th...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
This study shows that mRNA levels of the aging related lamin A splice variant progerin, associated with premature aging in HGPS, were significantly upregulated in subjects with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Moreover, our data revealed a significantly positive correlation of BMI with progerin mRNA. These data provide to our knowledge for the first-time evidence for a possible involvement of progerin in previously observed accelerated aging of overweight and obese individuals potentially limiting their longevity. Our results also showed that progerin mRNA was positively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP). This might suggest an as...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Conclusion: Intracranial artery calcification is common in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease and the intracranial carotid artery is most frequently affected. Intracranial arterial calcifications might be associated with imaging markers of SVD and are highly correlated with WMHs, lacunes, and CMBs. Quantification of calcification on CT provides additional information on the pathophysiology of SVD. Intracranial arterial calcification could act as a potential marker of SVD. Introduction Atherosclerosis is a systemic vascular process that is considered a major cause of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular di...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
This popular science article discusses at length the chronic inflammation that is characteristic of the old, and its role as a proximate cause of age-related disease. Inflammation is a necessary part of the immune response to injury and pathogens, and when present in the short term it is vital to the proper operation of bodily systems. But when the immune system runs awry in later life, and inflammatory processes are constantly running, then this inflammation corrodes metabolism, tissue function, and health. The causes of excess, constant inflammation are both internal and external to the immune system. Internally, ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
Albert Sanfeliu1, Karsten Hokamp2, Michael Gill1 and Daniela Tropea1,3*1Neuropsychiatric Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Trinity Translational Medicine Institute, St James Hospital, Dublin, Ireland2Department of Genetics, School of Genetics and Microbiology, Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland3Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Trinity College Institute for Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, IrelandRett syndrome is a rare neuropsychiatric disorder with a wide symptomatology including impaired communication and movement, cardio-respiratory abno...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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