Autoimmune abnormalities of the alternative complement pathway in membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and C3 glomerulopathy

AbstractMembranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a rare chronic kidney disease associated with complement activation. Recent immunofluorescence-based classification distinguishes between immune complex (IC)-mediated MPGN, with glomerular IgG and C3 deposits, and C3 glomerulopathies (C3G), with predominant C3 deposits. Genetic and autoimmune abnormalities causing hyperactivation of the complement alternative pathway have been found as frequently in patients with immune complex-associated MPGN (IC-MPGN) as in those with C3G. In the last decade, there have been great advances in research into the autoimmune causes of IC-MPGN and C3G. The complement-activating autoantibodies called C3-nephritic factors (C3NeFs), which are present in 40 –80% of patients, form a heterogeneous group of autoantibodies that stabilise the C3 convertase or the C5 convertase of the alternative pathway or both. A few patients, mainly with IC-MPGN, carry autoantibodies directed against the two components of the alternative pathway C3 convertase, factors B and C3b. Finally, autoantibodies against factor H, the main regulator of the alternative pathway, have been reported in a small proportion of patients with IC-MPGN or C3G. The identification of distinct pathogenetic patterns leading to kidney injury and of targets in the complement cascade may pave the way for tailored therapies for IC-MPGN and C3G, with specific complement inhibitors in the development pipeline.
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

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In this study, we therefore examined whether FKN could stimulate the process of EMT, NF-kB, TGFβ, CCL22, F4/80, inflammation, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in a murine model of LN. We also determined whether FKN was involved in the EMT process of Wnt/β-catenin-expressing HK-2 cells. Mechanistically, we ascertained, for the first time, whether FKN up-regulated EMT-related gene signatures (e.g., vimentin, α-SMA), and hence, renal tubulointerstitial fibrogenesis, and the role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in this process. Materials and Methods Cell Culture, Stable Infection, and Grouping HK-...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusion As a critical regulator of inflammation and cell survival, the NFκB pathway is a promising target for diagnosing and treating kidney diseases. For modulation of the NFκB pathway in the clinic, a number of molecules can effectively inhibit NFκB signaling by targeting the receptors, associated adaptors, IKKs, IκBs and transcriptional regulators (144). There is further clinical evidence on small-molecule inhibitors of IKKα and NIK from recent trials on anti-cancer therapies (145). These clinical trials showed that the cancer-selective pharmacodynamic response of DTP3, the co-inhibitor...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 4 April 2019Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of DiseaseAuthor(s): Stuart E. Dryer, Hila Roshanravan, Eun Young KimAbstractMutations in the gene encoding canonical transient receptor potential-6 (TRPC6) channels result in severe nephrotic syndromes that typically lead to end-stage renal disease. Many but not all of these mutations result in a gain in the function of the resulting channel protein. Since those observations were first made, substantial work has supported the hypothesis that TRPC6 channels can also contribute to progression of acquired (non-genetic...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Basis of Disease - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe congophilic properties of organized fibrillary deposits should not be solely relied on in differentiating fibrillary GN from renal amyloidosis. Mass spectrometry and DNAJB9 immunohistochemistry can be useful in making this distinction.
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
Authors: Penfold RS, Prendecki M, McAdoo S, Tam FW Abstract IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis worldwide, exhibiting a variable clinical and pathological course and significantly contributing to the global burden of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Current standards of care focus on optimization of antihypertensive and antiproteinuric therapies (typically renin- angiotensin system blockade) to reduce disease progression. Much recent attention has focused on whether additional immunosuppression confers better outcomes than supportive management alone, and ...
Source: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis Source Type: research
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Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Occupational and Environmental Health Source Type: research
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Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
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Source: Autoimmunity Reviews - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Abstract Renal involvement in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies is not as uncommon as was previously thought, as it develops in about one fifth of patients. Clinical presentation includes either acute kidney injury or chronic glomerulonephritis. The former usually develops abruptly during acute phases of rhabdomyolysis: in this case, kidney injury is caused by the toxic effects that myoglobinuria has on the kidney tubules, including cast formation and iron-induced oxidative stress and the development of a third space into the injured muscles. The latter instead has an autoimmune nature, a pleomorphic histological...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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