Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Partially Realized Potential

AbstractSmall cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly lethal subtype of lung cancer that has seen few therapeutic advances, despite ongoing concerted efforts. Immunotherapy has been an effective option in other carcinogen-related cancers and has shown modest activity in SCLC. Monotherapy with the anti-PD-1 antibody nivolumab in patients with at least two prior lines of therapy was associated with a response rate of 11.9% and a median duration of response of 17.9  months, leading to accelerated approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as third-line therapy for SCLC. Second-line checkpoint inhibitors have not performed well enough to change the standard of care, and maintenance immunotherapy has not shown significant benefit. However, the incorpora tion of concurrent immunotherapy in the first-line treatment of SCLC has improved outcomes. The addition of the anti-PD-L1 antibody atezolizumab to standard carboplatin plus etoposide led to an improvement in progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival, the first such improvement in over 30  years leading to the approval of atezolizumab as part of first-line therapy for advanced SCLC. While these landmark approvals offer promising novel treatment options for this recalcitrant disease, more work is needed to optimize their delivery and to build upon these important advances.
Source: Advances in Therapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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Until recently, the treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC), a malignancy classically described as having a robust response to first-line therapy with near-universal recurrence, has remained relatively unchanged. Advancements in the management of SCLC have lagged behind those seen for non–small cell lung cancers. As the era of precision medicine and targeted immunotherapy evolves, radiologists must be familiar with the modern treatment paradigms of SCLC and associated imaging patterns, including classic and nonclassic appearances of treatment complications.
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - Category: Radiology Tags: Cardiothoracic Imaging Source Type: research
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a refractory cancer with high degree of malignancy, rapid disease progression, poor prognosis and easy recurrence. In the past 30 years, the traditional treatment of SCLC, mainly chemotherapy and radiotherapy, has not changed significantly, and the effective treatment method for clinical needs is extremely urgent. The rapid development of precision medicine has revealed the molecular biological characteristics of SCLC, so its diagnosis and treatment will into a new era. At present, some studies have shown that anti-angiogenic drugs, immunotherapy and so on have improved the efficacy of SCLC...
Source: Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
This article reviewed the predictive value of TMB and its limitations in the field of immunotherapy for lung cancer. DOI: 10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2019.06.08
Source: Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. There are two classes of lung cancer: non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). NSCLC represents approximately 85% of all lung cancer cases. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIPs) are a class of inhibitors of programmed death-1 and programmed death-ligand 1. Preclinical studies have shown that ICIPs have shown good clinical efficacy and durable response in diverse cancers. Among them, atezolizumab (MPDL3280), an anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody, is being investigated as a potential therapy against solid tumors and hematologic ma...
Source: Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Currently, chemotherapy remains the standard treatment for first- and second-line management of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Immunotherapy has made progress in the treatment of SCLC, and nivolumab, pembroliz...
Source: Journal of Hematology and Oncology - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Oncolytic virotherapy has been proposed as an ablative and immunostimulatory treatment strategy for solid tumors that are resistant to immunotherapy alone; however, there is a need to optimize host immune activation using preclinical immunocompetent models in previously untested common adult tumors. We studied a modified oncolytic myxoma virus (MYXV) that shows high efficiency for tumor-specific cytotoxicity in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), a neuroendocrine carcinoma with high mortality and modest response rates to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Using an immunocompetent SCLC mouse model, we demonstrated the safety of intra...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
With the in-depth study of tumor immunity, immunotherapy represented by immune checkpoint inhibitors has made a great breakthrough in solid tumors. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for about 15%-20% of all lung cancers, with high malignancy, early metastasis and lack of effective treatment strategy. The appearance of immune checkpoint inhibitors brings new hope for SCLC. Several clinical trials have demonstrated the persistent efficacy and clinical activity of the programmed death receptor/ligand 1 (PD-1/L1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) in the treatment of SCLC. However, its efficacy and safety are n...
Source: Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Markus Hartl* and Rainer Schneider Center of Molecular Biosciences (CMBI), Institute of Biochemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria The neuronal proteins GAP43 (neuromodulin), MARCKS, and BASP1 are highly expressed in the growth cones of nerve cells where they are involved in signal transmission and cytoskeleton organization. Although their primary structures are unrelated, these signaling proteins share several structural properties like fatty acid modification, and the presence of cationic effector domains. GAP43, MARCKS, and BASP1 bind to cell membrane phospholipids, a process reversibly regulate...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our data supports that never/ever smoker patients with small-cell lung cancer have better prognosis compared to their smoker counterparts. Further, patients with never/ever smoking history who present with small-cell lung cancer have a different mutation profile compared with smokers, including a high frequency of EGFR, MET, and SMAD4 mutations. Further studies are required to assess whether the differential mutation profile is a consequence of a diverse pathological mechanism for disease onset. Introduction Lung cancer is the most common neoplasia worldwide. Aside from the high incidence, lung cancer a...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
(European Society for Medical Oncology) Maintenance immunotherapy fails to improve survival in extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC), according to late-breaking results from the CheckMate 451 study to be presented today at the European Lung Cancer Congress (ELCC) 2019.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
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