The Pregnancy Pickle: Evolved Immune Compensation Due to Pregnancy Underlies Sex Differences in Human Diseases.

The Pregnancy Pickle: Evolved Immune Compensation Due to Pregnancy Underlies Sex Differences in Human Diseases. Trends Genet. 2019 Jul;35(7):478-488 Authors: Natri H, Garcia AR, Buetow KH, Trumble BC, Wilson MA Abstract We hypothesize that, ancestrally, sex-specific immune modulation evolved to facilitate survival of the pregnant person in the presence of an invasive placenta and an immunologically challenging pregnancy - an idea we term the 'pregnancy compensation hypothesis' (PCH). Further, we propose that sex differences in immune function are mediated, at least in part, by the evolution of gene content and dosage on the sex chromosomes, and are regulated by reproductive hormones. Finally, we propose that changes in reproductive ecology in industrialized environments exacerbate these evolved sex differences, resulting in the increasing risk of autoimmune disease observed in females, and a counteracting reduction in diseases such as cancer that can be combated by heightened immune surveillance. The PCH generates a series of expectations that can be tested empirically and that may help to identify the mechanisms underlying sex differences in modern human diseases. PMID: 31200807 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Trends in Genetics : TIG - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Trends Genet Source Type: research

Related Links:

Publication date: July 2019Source: Trends in Genetics, Volume 35, Issue 7Author(s): Heini Natri, Angela R. Garcia, Kenneth H. Buetow, Benjamin C. Trumble, Melissa A. WilsonWe hypothesize that, ancestrally, sex-specific immune modulation evolved to facilitate survival of the pregnant person in the presence of an invasive placenta and an immunologically challenging pregnancy – an idea we term the 'pregnancy compensation hypothesis' (PCH). Further, we propose that sex differences in immune function are mediated, at least in part, by the evolution of gene content and dosage on the sex chromosomes, and are regulated by re...
Source: Trends in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
(Arizona State University) A team of scientists at Arizona State University is presenting a new hypothesis to explain why there are differences between women and men when it comes to human diseases. Called 'The Pregnancy Compensation Hypothesis,' the theory sets the stage for novel research avenues focused specifically on treating autoimmune diseases and cancer.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Discussion Facial nerve palsy has been known for centuries, but in 1821 unilateral facial nerve paralysis was described by Sir Charles Bell. Bell’s palsy (BP) is a unilateral, acute facial paralysis that is clinically diagnosed after other etiologies have been excluded by appropriate history, physical examination and/or laboratory testing or imaging. Symptoms include abnormal movement of facial nerve. It can be associated with changes in facial sensation, hearing, taste or excessive tearing. The right and left sides are equally affected but bilateral BP is rare (0.3%). Paralysis can be complete or incomplete at prese...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
Human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) play various critical roles in both innate and adaptive immunity through processes such as presenting antigens to T cells and serving as ligands for receptors expressed on NK cells. Among the HLA class I family, the clinical significance and biological function of HLA-F have been the least investigated and have remained elusive for a long period of time. Previous studies have revealed that HLA-F expression might be involved in various physiological and pathological processes, such as pregnancy, viral infection, cancer, transplantation and autoimmune diseases. However, recent data have shown ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Regulatory T cells, a subpopulation of suppressive T cells, are potent mediators of self-tolerance and essential for the suppression of triggered immune responses. The immune modulating capacity of these cells play a major role in both transplantation, autoimmune disease, allergy, cancer and pregnancy. During pregnancy, low numbers of regulatory T cells are associated with pregnancy failure and pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. On the other hand, in cancer, low numbers of immunosuppressive T cells are correlated with better prognosis. Hence, maternal immune tolerance toward the fetus during pregnancy and the e...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study, we reviewed major human studies on the health risks of radiation exposure and showed that sex-related factors may potentially influence the long-term response to radiation exposure. Available data suggest that long-term radiosensitivity in women is higher than that in men who receive a comparable dose of radiation. The report on the biological effects of ionizing radiation (BEIR VII) published in 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences, United States emphasized that women may be at significantly greater risk of suffering and dying from radiation-induced cancer than men exposed to the same dose of radiation....
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Discussion MDSCs violently emerge in pathological conditions in an attempt to limit potentially harmful immune and inflammatory responses. Mechanisms supporting their expansion and survival are deeply investigated in cancer, in the perspective to reactivate specific antitumor responses and prevent their contribution to disease evolution. These findings will likely contribute to improve the targeting of MDSCs in anticancer immunotherapies, either alone or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors. New evidence indicates that the expansion of myeloid cell differentiation in pathology is subject to fine-tuning, as its...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Yong Zhao1, Peijuan Liu1, Zhiqian Xin1, Changhong Shi1, Yinlan Bai2, Xiuxuan Sun3, Ya Zhao1, Xiaoya Wang1,4, Li Liu1,5, Xuan Zhao1,4, Zhinan Chen3* and Hai Zhang1,6* 1Laboratory Animal Center, Air Force Medical University, Xi’an, China 2Department of Microbiology, Air Force Medical University, Xi’an, China 3Department of Cell Biology, National Translational Science Center for Molecular Medicine, Air Force Medical University, Xi’an, China 4College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China 5Key Laboratory for Space Bioscience and Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nor...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Maunil K. Desai1 and Roberta Diaz Brinton2,3* 1School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States 2Center for Innovation in Brain Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States 3Departments of Pharmacology and Neurology, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States Women have a higher incidence and prevalence of autoimmune diseases than men, and 85% or more patients of multiple autoimmune diseases are female. Women undergo sweeping endocrinological changes at least twice during their lifetime, puberty and menopause, with many women undergoin...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Conclusion The periconceptional environment and lifestyle factors modify sperm epigenome. This alteration might be maintained in the zygote and throughout development, thereby leading to the inheritance of newly acquired pathologies. The role of sperm miRNA, not only as innovative markers of fertility issues but also as vectors involved in the inheritance of paternal diseases, appears to be crucial. Overweight and obesity seem to alter sperm miRNA profile, thereby leading to transmission of different miRNA profiles in zygote, with consequences on embryo development. In long term, metabolic disorders have been described in...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
More News: Allergy & Immunology | Autoimmune Disease | Cancer | Cancer & Oncology | Environmental Health | Genetics | Hormones | Pregnancy