Metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders.

Metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2019 Jun 13;: Authors: Rivera S, García-González L, Khrestchatisky M, Baranger K Abstract As life expectancy increases worldwide, age-related neurodegenerative diseases will increase in parallel. The lack of effective treatment strategies may soon lead to an unprecedented health, social and economic crisis. Any attempt to halt the progression of these diseases requires a thorough knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved to facilitate the identification of new targets and the application of innovative therapeutic strategies. The metzincin superfamily of metalloproteinases includes matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) and ADAM with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS). These multigenic and multifunctional proteinase families regulate the functions of an increasing number of signalling and scaffolding molecules involved in neuroinflammation, blood-brain barrier disruption, protein misfolding, synaptic dysfunction or neuronal death. Metalloproteinases and their physiological inhibitors, the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), are therefore, at the crossroads of molecular and cellular mechanisms that support neurodegenerative processes, and emerge as potential new therapeutic targets. We provide an overview of current knowledge on the role and r...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 6 July 2019Source: MitochondrionAuthor(s): Yuanbo Wu, Meiqiao Chen, Jielong JiangAbstractMitochondrial dysfunction is becoming one of the most emerging pathological process in the etiology of neurological disorders. Other common etiologies of the neurological disorders are aging and oxidative stress. Neurodegenerative disorders for instance Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Epilepsy, Schizophrenia, Multiple sclerosis, Neuropathic pain and Alzheimer's disease involves mitochondrial dysfunction and is regarded as the core of their pathological process...
Source: Mitochondrion - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Abstract Huntingtin (Htt) is a multi-function protein of the brain. Normal Htt shows a common alpha-helical structure but conformational changes into a form with beta strands is the principal cause of Huntington's disease." Huntington's disease is a genetic neurological disorder caused by a repeated expansion of the CAG trinucleotide instability in the N-terminal of the gene coding for the Huntingtin protein. The mutation leads to the abnormal expansion of the production of the polyglutamine tract (polyQ) resulting in the form of an unstable Huntingtin protein commonly referred to as mutant Huntingtin. Mutant...
Source: Current Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Curr Med Chem Source Type: research
AbstractCurcumin is widely consumed in Asia either as turmeric directly or as one of the culinary ingredients in food recipes. The benefits of curcumin in different organ systems have been reported extensively in several neurological diseases and cancer. Curcumin has got its global recognition because of its strong antioxidant, anti ‐inflammatory, anti‐cancer, and antimicrobial activities. Additionally, it is used in diabetes and arthritis as well as in hepatic, renal, and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, there is growing attention on usage of curcumin to prevent or delay the onset of neurodegenerative diseases. This...
Source: BioFactors - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research
Abstract Microglia are resident immune cells that act as the first active defence in the central nervous system. These cells constantly monitor the tissue microenvironment and rapidly react in response to hypoxia, infection and injuries. Hypoxia in the brain has been detected in several neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. Hypoxic conditions activate microglia cells towards M1 phenotype resulting in oxidative stress and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Recently, we have demonstrated that oxidative stress indu...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research
Abstract Abnormal protein aggregation is a common pathological feature of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Protein posttranslational modifications (PTMs) play a crucial regulatory role in the formation of pathologic aggregation. Among the known PTMs involved in neurodegeneration, poly(ADP-ribosylation) (PARylation) has emerged with promising therapeutic potentials of the use of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. In this review, we describe the mounting evidence that abnormal PA...
Source: Biochemical Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Biochem Pharmacol Source Type: research
Conclusion and Future Aspects This review summarizes available NTF expression data, compiles existing evidence on the effects of glial NTF signaling in healthy conditions and in disease models (Figure 1), and highlights the importance of this topic for future studies. The relationship between NTFs and glia is crucial for both the developing and adult brain. While some of these factors, such as NT-3 and CNTF, have highly potent effects on gliogenesis, others like BDNF and GDNF, are important for glia-mediated synapse formation. Neurotrophic factors play significant roles during neurodegenerative disorders. In many cases, ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Conclusion The key problem with the ND field is the lack of understanding in the events preceding the development of protein-based markers – such as Tau – currently used to diagnose NDs. By this stage, the diseases become more difficult to treat. SncRNAs play an important regulatory role in the maintenance of the homeostatic brain. Therefore, changes in their concentration levels can be indicative of mechanistic changes that could precede protein-based markers. One single sncRNA biomarker is unlikely to differentiate between diseases. However, a combination of sncRNA biomarkers could be illustrative of the me...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the National Animal Care and Use Committee of the University of Buenos Aires (CICUAL). The protocol was approved by the CICUAL. Mice were kept under a 12-h light/dark cycle, with controlled temperature (23 ± 2°C) and humidity (40–60%) and had ad libitum access to food and water. To produce hTDP-43 transgenic lines, as described previously (Igaz et al., 2011), pronucleus of fertilized eggs from C57BL/6J × C3HeJ F1 matings were injected with a vector containing hTDP-43-WT cDNA. Monogenic tetO-TDP-WT12 mice wer...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Silvia Pregnolato1*, Elavazhagan Chakkarapani1, Anthony R. Isles2 and Karen Luyt1 1Department of Neonatal Neurology, Translational Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom 2Behavioural Genetics Group, MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom Preterm birth complications are the leading cause of child death worldwide and a top global health priority. Among the survivors, the risk of life-long disabilities is high, including cerebral palsy and impairment of movement, cognition, and behavior. U...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Kukreti Oxidative stress is proposed as a regulatory element in ageing and various neurological disorders. The excess of oxidants causes a reduction of antioxidants, which in turn produce an oxidation–reduction imbalance in organisms. Paucity of the antioxidant system generates oxidative-stress, characterized by elevated levels of reactive species (oxygen, hydroxyl free radical, and so on). Mitochondria play a key role in ATP supply to cells via oxidative phosphorylation, as well as synthesis of essential biological molecules. Various redox reactions catalyzed by enzymes take place in the oxidative phosphoryl...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
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