Hippocampal CA field neurogenesis after pilocarpine insult: The hippocampal fissure as a neurogenic niche

Publication date: March 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 56 Author(s): Limei Zhang , Vito S. Hernández , Felipe S. Estrada , Rafael Luján Pilocarpine model for temporal lobe epilepsy has shown aberrant neurogenesis, but mainly restricted to the dentate gyrus (DG). Herein, by using a modified protocol, combining pilocarpine with ipratropium bromide, we unexpectedly observed a heretofore-unrecognized distinct cellular population expressing the neuroprogenitor marker doublecortin (DCX) on post insult days (PID) 10, 14 and 18, mainly located in the temporal segment of the hippocampal fissure (hf). Some of these DCX+ cells possessed high morphological complexity and seemed to disperse toward the CA fields. Next, we injected bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) in early (PID 2–4) and delayed (PID 5–7) fashions and killed the rats 7–35 days later for immunohistochemical and anatomical analysis. Massive increase of BrdU labeling was found in the delayed group and the neural stem cell-specific marker nestin was highly expressed in the same narrow band on PID7, so was glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Using double labeling with BrdU and a mature neuron marker NeuN, we found discrete but clear BrdU+/NeuN+ double labeled cells in the Cornu Ammonis (CA) pyramidal cell layer on PID35. Based on immunohistochemical and anatomical observations, as well as time-course analysis of BrdU, nestin, GFAP, DCX and NeuN expressions in this population of ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 15 January 2020Source: Stem Cell ResearchAuthor(s): Chuanbo Sun, Mingzhu Yang, Fengying Qin, Ruirui Guo, Shiqi Liang, Hao HuAbstractwe generated iPSCs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a child with epilepsy carrying heterozygous missense mutation in GRIN2A, using integration free episomal vectors. These iPSCs express pluripotent markers, represent a normal karyotype and have the ability to differentiate into three germ layers.
Source: Stem Cell Research - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
ConclusionMEK-ERK and MNK-eIF4E pathways regulate protein translation, and our results suggest that aberrant translation distinct in TSC1/2-deficient NPCs could play a role in neurodevelopmental defects. Our data showing upregulation of these signaling pathways by rapamycin support a strategy to combine a MEK or a MNK inhibitor with rapamycin that may be superior for TSC-associated CNS defects. Importantly, our generation of isogenic sets of NPCs from TSC patients provides a valuable platform for translatome and large-scale drug screening studies. Overall, our studies further support the notion that early developmental eve...
Source: Molecular Autism - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Abstract Seizure-induced neurogenesis has a widely recognized pro-epileptogenic function. Given the critical role of Notch signaling during the maintenance and neurogenesis of neural stem cells, we hypothesized that Notch may affect epileptogenesis and its progression through its role in neurogenesis in the adolescent rat brain. We used the lithium-pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model in adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats in order to evaluate hippocampal neurogenesis and epileptogenesis following the onset of status epilepticus (SE). We used western blotting analyses and qPCR to measure levels of Notch signaling at diff...
Source: Cell Research - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Tissue Res Source Type: research
AbstractSeizure-induced neurogenesis has a widely recognized pro-epileptogenic function. Given the critical role of Notch signaling during the maintenance and neurogenesis of neural stem cells, we hypothesized that Notch may affect epileptogenesis and its progression through its role in neurogenesis in the adolescent rat brain. We used the lithium-pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model in adolescent Sprague –Dawley rats in order to evaluate hippocampal neurogenesis and epileptogenesis following the onset of status epilepticus (SE). We used western blotting analyses and qPCR to measure levels of Notch signaling at differe...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Wrapping up this year and looking back on the particularly interesting developments in medical technology, we at Medgadget are impressed and very excited about the future. We’re lucky to cover one of the most innovative fields of research and o...
Source: Medgadget - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: Exclusive Source Type: blogs
ConclusionsThis is the first report to show that humanNRXN1 α+/ − neurons derived from ASD patients ’ iPSCs present novel phenotypes of upregulated VGCCs and increased Ca2+ transients, which may facilitate the development of drug screening assays for the treatment of ASD.
Source: Molecular Autism - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
In this study, by adenovirus-mediated delivery and inducible transgenic mouse models, we demonstrate the proliferation of both HCs and SCs by combined Notch1 and Myc activation in in vitro and in vivo inner ear adult mouse models. These proliferating mature SCs and HCs maintain their respective identities. Moreover, when presented with HC induction signals, reprogrammed adult SCs transdifferentiate into HC-like cells both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, our data suggest that regenerated HC-like cells likely possess functional transduction channels and are able to form connections with adult auditory neurons. Epige...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Authors: Ashrafi MR, Amanat M, Garshasbi M, Kameli R, Nilipour Y, Heidari M, Rezaei Z, Tavasoli AR Abstract Introduction: Leukodystrophies constitute heterogenous group of rare heritable disorders primarily affecting the white matter of central nervous system. These conditions are often under-appreciated among physicians. The first clinical manifestations of leukodystrophies are often nonspecific and can occur in different ages from neonatal to late adulthood periods. The diagnosis is, therefore, challenging in most cases.Area covered: Herein, the authors discuss different aspects of leukodystrophies. The authors used...
Source: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics - Category: Neurology Tags: Expert Rev Neurother Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 11 December 2019Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Kuo Zhang, Fan Wang, Yang Zhao, Meiyao He, Yuanchao Luo, Yue Cheng, Jing Luo, Zhimei Li, Jingyu YangAbstractAdult hippocampal neurogenesis plays the pivotal roles in central nervous system diseases. Recently, it has been reported that levetiracetam (LEV), a new antiepileptic drug with novel chemical construction and unique pharmacological properties, suppressed aberrant adult subventricular zone (SGZ) neurogenesis in kainite-induced epileptic mice, while promoted adult SGZ neuroblast differentiation in normal mice. These studi...
Source: Neurochemistry International - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
AbstractDevelopmental and/or epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are a group of devastating genetic disorders, resulting in early-onset, therapy-resistant seizures and developmental delay. Here we report on 22 individuals from 15 families presenting with a severe form of intractable epilepsy, severe developmental delay, progressive microcephaly, visual disturbance and similar minor dysmorphisms. Whole exome sequencing identified a recurrent, homozygous variant (chr2:64083454A  >  G) in the essentialUDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP2) gene in all probands. This rare variant results in a tolerable Met12Val mi...
Source: Acta Neuropathologica - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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