Pigeon circoviruses from feral pigeon in Australia demonstrates extensive recombination and genetic admixture with other circoviruses.

Pigeon circoviruses from feral pigeon in Australia demonstrates extensive recombination and genetic admixture with other circoviruses. Avian Pathol. 2019 Jun 14;:1-23 Authors: Sarker S, Das S, Ghorashi SA, Forwood JK, Raidal SR Abstract Like other avian circovirus species Pigeon circovirus (PiCV) is known to be genetically diverse with a relatively small circular single stranded DNA genome of 2 kb that encodes for a capsid protein (Cap) and a replication initiator protein (Rep). Recent paleoviral evidence hints towards a probable Gondwanan origin of avian circoviruses, paralleling the evolution and dispersal of their hosts. Limited availability of PiCV genome sequence data in Australia has hindered phylogeographic studies in this species, so we screened clinically normal rock doves (Columba livia) in regional New South Wales, and demonstrated a high prevalence (76%) of PiCV infection by PCR. We also recovered 12 complete novel PiCV genomes and phylogenetic analyses revealed that PiCV circulating in Australian feral pigeons formed two strongly supported monophyletic clades. One clade resided with PiCV genomes from Poland, Australia, United Kingdom, Belgium, China, and Japan, and another basal clade was more closely related to PiCV genomes from Poland. A novel more distantly PiCV rep gene formed a solitary clade with weak posterior support. So we further analysed all selected partial rep gene sequences to demonstrate a likely naturally occurring spill-ov...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 19 October 2019Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology &PharmacologyAuthor(s): Shouta M.M. Nakayama, Ayuko Morita, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Yusuke K. Kawai, Kensuke P. Watanabe, Chihiro Ishii, Hazuki Mizukawa, Yared B. Yohannes, Keisuke Saito, Yukiko Watanabe, Masaki Ito, Natsuo Ohsawa, Mayumi IshizukaAbstractWorldwide use of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) for rodents control has frequently led to secondary poisoning of non-target animals, especially raptors. In order to suggest some factors that may help considering the mechanism of the incidents, this study fo...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology and Pharmacology - Category: Toxicology Source Type: research
Abstract Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) in combination with yeast surface display has emerged as a vital tool for the isolation and engineering of antibodies and antibody-derived fragments from synthetic, naïve, and immune libraries. However, the generation of antibodies against certain human antigens from immunized animals, e.g., mice, can remain challenging due to the homology to the murine counterpart. Due to the phylogenetic distance from humans, avian immunization can be a powerful technique for the generation of antibodies with high specificity against human antigens. Additionally, the pecul...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 October 2019Source: Microbial PathogenesisAuthor(s): Kailey Perez, Nathan Mullen, Jessica A. Canter, David H. Ley, Meghan MayAbstractThe avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a known pathogen of poultry, and newly emerged pathogen of house finches wherein it is associated with lethal conjunctivitis. Factors present in MG that are known to mediate virulence include cytadherence, sialidase activity, peroxide production, and biofilm formation. We have quantitatively assessed these factors for MG isolates from house finches from a temporal and geographic distribution across the c...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Xuejiao Han, Luca D. Bertzbach, Michael VeitAbstractIn contrast to human influenza viruses that replicate in the respiratory tract and are airborne transmitted, avian viruses also replicate in gut epithelial cells and are transmitted via the fecal-oral route. On this route, the virus is exposed to destructive fluids of the digestive tract, which are acidic and contain the proteases pepsin (gizzard) or chymotrypsin and trypsin (intestine). Only the latter enzyme activates virus by cleaving hemagglutinin (HA) into HA1 and HA2 subunits...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
In this study, we detected for just the second time a SINV infection in a diseased wild bird (common wood pigeon) from Central Europe. SINV was isolated by cell culture and the complete SINV genome sequence was determined. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a close affiliation to SINV genotype I with a high similarity to human isolate sequences from Finland, Sweden and Russia. The isolate was genetically distinct from the first avian isolate suggesting the circulation of at least two different SINV strains in Germany.In order to reveal the infection frequency in SINV positive mosquito regions 749 bird blood samples were assaye...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
A recent study in this journal compared codon usage among NA subtypes (N1, N2, N6, and N8)  of H5Nx highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (HPAIVs) and suggested that codon usage in N1 subtype is better adapted to its host than the epidemic NA subtypes (N6 and N8), which had fewer number of human cases compared to the N1 subtype.1 To date, there are 18 known HA subtypes (H1-H18) and 11 known NA subtypes (N1-N11)2. However, only N1 and N2 subtypes have been reported to cause pandemics (H1N1 for the 1918 and 2009 pandemics; H2N2 for the 1957 pandemic; and H3N2 for the 1968 pandemic) or seasonal outbreaks in humans3.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) are able to colonise and infect domestic poultry and also pose a risk for humans. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of genotypic diversity among C. jejuni isolates recovered from avian and human sources in Egypt. Furthermore, the short variable region (SVR) of flagellin A (flaA) gene was analysed for the presence of allelic variants. Our results showed that C. jejuni isolates differ in their capacity to harbour each of the virulence genes alone or when present in various combinations. The flaA gene was detected in all C. jejuni strains and none of the strains had all the stu...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract To study the role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of the fatty liver haemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS), mature laying hen were treated with oestrogen (β-estradiol-17-dipropionate or E2) and challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Oestrogen injections induced FLHS, but the incidence and severity of the condition was increased with a combination of E2 &LPS. Hepatic mRNA levels of the genes encoding key regulators of inflammation such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) were evaluated. The expression of IL-6 mRNA in hepatocytes of all treated grou...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: We applied different methods for threshold setting depending on the attributes of each parameter and indicator. For indicators represented by multiple parameters, an aggregated assessment of the indicator's level of activity and confidence level of the assessment was needed for effective reporting. PMID: 31622034 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Respiratory Care - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Influenza Other Respir Viruses Source Type: research
K. E. Lafond et al.
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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