Charcot-Leyden Crystals in Eosinophilic Inflammation: Active Cytolysis Leads to Crystal Formation

AbstractPurpose of ReviewCharcot-Leyden crystals (CLCs), slender bipyramidal hexagonal crystals, were first described by Jean-Martin Charcot in 1853, predating Paul Ehrlich ’s “discovery” of eosinophils by 26 years. To date, CLCs are known as a classical hallmark of eosinophilic inflammation. CLC protein expresses palmitate cleaving lysophospholipase activity and is a member of the family of S-type lectins, galectin-10. We summarize current knowledge regarding t he pathological observations of CLCs and their mechanism of generation focusing on eosinophil cell death.Recent FindingsThe presence of CLCs in vivo has been consistently associated with lytic eosinophils. Recent evidence revealed that cytolysis represents the occurrence of extracellular trap cell death (ETosis), an active non-apoptotic cell death process releasing filamentous chromatin structure. Galectin-10 is a predominant protein present within the cytoplasm of eosinophils but not stored in secretory granules. Activated eosinophils undergo ETosis and loss of galectin-10 cytoplasmic localization results in intracellular CLC formation. Free galectin-10 released following plasma membrane disintegration forms extracellular CLCs. Of interest, galectin-10-containing extracellular vesicles are also released during ETosis. Mice models indicated that CLCs could be a novel therapeutic target for Th2-type airway inflammation.SummaryThe concept of ETosis, which represents a major fate of activated eosin...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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