Charcot-Leyden Crystals in Eosinophilic Inflammation: Active Cytolysis Leads to Crystal Formation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCharcot-Leyden crystals (CLCs), slender bipyramidal hexagonal crystals, were first described by Jean-Martin Charcot in 1853, predating Paul Ehrlich ’s “discovery” of eosinophils by 26 years. To date, CLCs are known as a classical hallmark of eosinophilic inflammation. CLC protein expresses palmitate cleaving lysophospholipase activity and is a member of the family of S-type lectins, galectin-10. We summarize current knowledge regarding t he pathological observations of CLCs and their mechanism of generation focusing on eosinophil cell death.Recent FindingsThe presence of CLCs in vivo has been consistently associated with lytic eosinophils. Recent evidence revealed that cytolysis represents the occurrence of extracellular trap cell death (ETosis), an active non-apoptotic cell death process releasing filamentous chromatin structure. Galectin-10 is a predominant protein present within the cytoplasm of eosinophils but not stored in secretory granules. Activated eosinophils undergo ETosis and loss of galectin-10 cytoplasmic localization results in intracellular CLC formation. Free galectin-10 released following plasma membrane disintegration forms extracellular CLCs. Of interest, galectin-10-containing extracellular vesicles are also released during ETosis. Mice models indicated that CLCs could be a novel therapeutic target for Th2-type airway inflammation.SummaryThe concept of ETosis, which represents a major fate of activated eosin...
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2020Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In PracticeAuthor(s): Manuel Jorge Rial, Marcela Valverde, Victoria del Pozo, Francisco Javier González-Barcala, Carlos Martínez-Rivera, Xavier Muñoz, José María Olaguibel, Vicente Plaza, Elena Curto, Santiago Quirce, Pilar Barranco, Javier Domínguez-Ortega, Joaquin Mullol, César Picado, Antonio Valero, Irina Bobolea, Ebymar Arismendi, Paula Ribó, Joaquín Sastre
Publication date: Available online 8 October 2020Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In PracticeAuthor(s): Annelies L. Robijn, Daniel Barker, Peter G. Gibson, Warwick B. Giles, Vicki L. Clifton, Joerg Mattes, Michael J. Peek, Helen L. Barrett, Sean K. Seeho, Leonie K. Callaway, Alistair Abbott, John Attia, Peter A. Wark, Megan E. Jensen, Vanessa E. Murphy
Publication date: Available online 8 October 2020Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In PracticeAuthor(s): Yudy K. Persaud., Jay Portnoy
Publication date: Available online 8 October 2020Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In PracticeAuthor(s): Laurits Frøssing, Alexander Silberbrandt, Anna Von Bülow, Vibeke Backer, Celeste Porsbjerg
tivitis Committee Abstract Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used throughout the world. They are frequently involved in hypersensitivity reactions, which range from local or mild reactions to systemic and severe reactions. Consequently, it is necessary to perform an exhaustive study of patients in order to make an accurate diagnosis, search for safe procedures in the case of severe reactions, and identify alternative treatment options. Various guidelines and protocols address the management of hypersensitivity to NSAIDs, although these vary widely from country to country. The Committees of A...
Conclusion A significant number of patients who meet currently approved indications for anti-IL5 mAbs show suboptimal response to them in real-life clinical practice, particularly if they are on high doses of prednisone. Monitoring blood eosinophil count is not helpful to identify these patients. The concern of worsening of symptoms associated with immune-complex mediated complement activation in a small proportion of these patients highlights the relevance of recognising airway autoimmune phenomena and this requires further evaluation.
Conclusions The timing of ICS dose when self-titrated to β2-agonist use is more important than total ICS dose in reducing severe exacerbation risk in mild asthma, when associated with greater overall use of as-needed β2-agonist.
Some studies have suggested that people who have asthma caused by something other than allergies -- exercise, stress, air pollution, weather conditions -- might have an increased risk of severe COVID-19.
Publication date: October 2020Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, Volume 8, Issue 9Author(s): Hannu Kankaanranta, Pinja Ilmarinen
Publication date: October 2020Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, Volume 8, Issue 9Author(s): Simon L. Bacon, Thomas A.E. Platts-Mills