Brain iron transport.

Brain iron transport. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2019 Jun 12;: Authors: Qian ZM, Ke Y Abstract Brain iron is a crucial participant and regulator of normal physiological activity. However, excess iron is involved in the formation of free radicals, and has been associated with oxidative damage to neuronal and other brain cells. Abnormally high brain iron levels have been observed in various neurodegenerative diseases, including neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. However, the key question of why iron levels increase in the relevant regions of the brain remains to be answered. A full understanding of the homeostatic mechanisms involved in brain iron transport and metabolism is therefore critical not only for elucidating the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for excess iron accumulation in the brain but also for developing pharmacological interventions to disrupt the chain of pathological events occurring in these neurodegenerative diseases. Numerous studies have been conducted, but to date no effort to synthesize these studies and ideas into a systematic and coherent summary has been made, especially concerning iron transport across the luminal (apical) membrane of the capillary endothelium and the membranes of different brain cell types. Herein, we review key findings on brain iron transport, highlighting the mechanisms involved in iron transport across the luminal (apica...
Source: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 15 July 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Alex M. Pagnozzi, Jurgen Fripp, Stephen E. RoseAbstractThe deep grey matter (DGM) nuclei of the brain play a crucial role in learning, behaviour, cognition, movement and memory. Although automated segmentation strategies can provide insight into the impact of multiple neurological conditions affecting these structures, such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Huntington's disease (HD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Cerebral Palsy (CP), there are a number of technical challenges limiting an accurate automated segmentation of the DGM...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
AbstractHuman age prediction is an interesting and applicable issue in different fields. It can be based on various criteria such as face image, DNA methylation, chest plate radiographs, knee radiographs, dental images and etc. Most of the age prediction researches have mainly been based on images. Since the image processing and Machine Learning (ML) techniques have grown up, the investigations were led to use them in age prediction problem. The implementations would be used in different fields, especially in medical applications. Brain Age Estimation (BAE) has attracted more attention in recent years and it would be so he...
Source: Journal of Medical Systems - Category: Information Technology Source Type: research
Abstract The role of water in protein function and aggregation is highly important and may hold some answers to understanding initiation of misfolding diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington's where soluble intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) aggregate into fibrillar structures. IDPs are highly dynamic and have larger solvent exposed areas compared to globular proteins, meaning they make and break hydrogen bonds with the surrounding water more frequently. The mobility of water can be altered by presence of ions, sugars, osmolytes, proteins and membranes which differ in different cell types, c...
Source: Current Opinion in Structural Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Curr Opin Struct Biol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 July 2019Source: MitochondrionAuthor(s): Yuanbo Wu, Meiqiao Chen, Jielong JiangAbstractMitochondrial dysfunction is becoming one of the most emerging pathological process in the etiology of neurological disorders. Other common etiologies of the neurological disorders are aging and oxidative stress. Neurodegenerative disorders for instance Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Epilepsy, Schizophrenia, Multiple sclerosis, Neuropathic pain and Alzheimer's disease involves mitochondrial dysfunction and is regarded as the core of their pathological process...
Source: Mitochondrion - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Neurochemistry - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
This study sought to investigate what could be learned from how these men have fared. The men were born in 1925-1928 and similar health-related data from questionnaires, physical examination, and blood samples are available for all surveys. Survival curves over various variable strata were applied to evaluate the impact of individual risk factors and combinations of risk factors on all-cause deaths. At the end of 2018, 118 (16.0%) of the men had reached 90 years of age. Smoking in 1974 was the strongest single risk factor associated with survival, with observed percentages of men reaching 90 years being 26.3, 25.7, ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Protein aggregates of varying sorts are a feature of neurodegenerative conditions. A very small number of the countless different proteins found in human biochemistry can become misfolded or otherwise altered in ways that cause them to both (a) precipitate into solid deposits and (b) draw in more of the same proteins to also aggregate. The aggregates further generate a halo of associated biochemistry that is toxic or disruptive to function in brain cells. Aggregates can also spread between cells, as illustrated here. A sizable fraction of the research community in this part of the field is interested in finding ways to int...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
Abstract Huntingtin (Htt) is a multi-function protein of the brain. Normal Htt shows a common alpha-helical structure but conformational changes into a form with beta strands is the principal cause of Huntington's disease." Huntington's disease is a genetic neurological disorder caused by a repeated expansion of the CAG trinucleotide instability in the N-terminal of the gene coding for the Huntingtin protein. The mutation leads to the abnormal expansion of the production of the polyglutamine tract (polyQ) resulting in the form of an unstable Huntingtin protein commonly referred to as mutant Huntingtin. Mutant...
Source: Current Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Curr Med Chem Source Type: research
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Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Baranger K Abstract As life expectancy increases worldwide, age-related neurodegenerative diseases will increase in parallel. The lack of effective treatment strategies may soon lead to an unprecedented health, social and economic crisis. Any attempt to halt the progression of these diseases requires a thorough knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved to facilitate the identification of new targets and the application of innovative therapeutic strategies. The metzincin superfamily of metalloproteinases includes matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADA...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research
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