Defining Virus-specific CD8+ TCR Repertoires for Therapeutic Regeneration of T Cells against Chronic Hepatitis E

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis in the global population. HEV is an emerging public health risk found in both the developed and developing countries [1,2]. There are several genotypes of HEV but only one serotype. Genotypes 1 and 2 infect humans only, and distributed mainly in the endemic regions where poor hygiene is the main cause of transmission via fecal-oral route. Genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic; their hosts include both human and animals, and are found predominantly in the urbanized countries.
Source: Journal of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Source Type: research

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y Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen transmitting both human to human via the fecal oral route and from animals to humans through feces, direct contact, and consumption of contaminated meat products. Understanding the host range of the virus is critical for determining where potential threats to human health may be emerging from and where potential reservoirs for viral persistence in the environment may be hiding. Initially thought to be a human specific disease endemic to developing countries, the identification of swine as a primary host for genotypes 3 and 4 HEV in industrialized countries has ...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Jouvenet Nicole Pavio Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for large waterborne epidemics of hepatitis in endemic countries and is an emerging zoonotic pathogen worldwide. In endemic regions, HEV-1 or HEV-2 genotypes are frequently associated with fulminant hepatitis in pregnant women, while with zoonotic HEV (HEV-3 and HEV-4), chronic cases of hepatitis and severe neurological disorders are reported. Hence, it is important to characterize the interactions between HEV and its host. Here, we investigated the ability of the nonstructural polyprotein encoded by the first open reading frame (ORF1) of HEV to modulate th...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
AbstractHepatitis E virus (HEV) infection involving zoonotic genotypes is a public health problem in high-income and non-endemic developing countries. Herein we report the detection of a human genotype 1 (HEV-1) strain infecting a domestic pig, which is not considered a natural reservoir of this genotype. Viral load was quantified in stool by Real-Time qPCR and sequence analyses were performed. Infectivity of the HEV-1 strain was assesed byin vitro isolation in A549 cell line. Results suggest that certain epidemiological settings might favour accidental spillover infection and thus influence the host range restriction of HEV.
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Conclusion The results obtained from this research shows, in general, the fragility in the social and political infrastructure necessary to improve the living conditions of populations, particularly those that depend on family agriculture in drought prone areas. The conditions of social, economic and environmental vulnerabilities presented in the region can be amplified by the drought process, and can aggravate the impacts resulting drought events, thus disadvantaging the population of this region, as shown in the Fig. 1. The general perception of the interviewees of the health sector shows an agreement with what is found...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
This study therefore investigates the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of HEV infection in pigs raised in Ibadan, Nigeria. Taking an analytical cross-sectional study design, 176 animals (comprising 120 pigs, 26 goats, and 30 cattle) were randomly sampled at the Bodija Municipal abattoir, Ibadan. Serum samples and demographic information were collected for HEV antibody detection (using a commercial recombinant genotype-3 antigen ELISA kit) and risk factors, respectively. A 57.5% (69/120) HEV seroprevalence was reported in the pigs while 0% prevalence was reported in the goats and cattle. In the pigs, a significant...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research
AbstractHistorically in developed countries, reported hepatitis E cases were typically travellers returning from countries where hepatitis E virus (HEV) is endemic, but now there are increasing numbers of non-travel-related ( “autochthonous”) cases being reported. Data for HEV in New Zealand remain limited and the transmission routes unproven. We critically reviewed the scientific evidence supporting HEV transmission routes in other developed countries to inform how people in New Zealand may be exposed to this virus. A substantial body of indirect evidence shows domesticated pigs are a source of zoonotic human ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Conclusions This investigation into a probable outbreak provides evidence of transmission of psittacosis in one or more office workers with no direct bird contact. In light of this clinicians and public health professionals should be aware of the possibility of psittacosis in cases of severe respiratory illness reporting no overt bird contact and consider it on their list of differential diagnoses in situations where indirect exposure to birds is possible, but not necessarily obvious. Competing Interests The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Corresponding Author John Mair-Jenkins: john.mairjenkins...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractHistorically in developed countries, reported hepatitis E cases were typically travellers returning from countries where hepatitis E virus (HEV) is endemic, but now there are increasing numbers of non-travel-related ( “autochthonous”) cases being reported. Data for HEV in New Zealand remain limited and the transmission routes unproven. We critically reviewed the scientific evidence supporting HEV transmission routes in other developed countries to inform how people in New Zealand may be exposed to this virus. A substantial body of indirect evidence shows domesticated pigs are a source of zoonotic human ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, representing an important global health problem. Our understanding of HEV has changed completely over the past decade. Previously, HEV was thought to be limited to certain developing countries. We now know that HEV is endemic in most high-income countries and is largely a zoonotic infection. Given the paradigm shift in our understanding of zoonotic HEV and that locally acquired HEV is now the commonest cause of acute viral hepatitis in many European countries, the focus of these Clinical Practice Guidelines will be on HEV genotype 3 (and 4).
Source: Journal of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Clinical Practice Guidelines Source Type: research
Summary In recent years there has been a paradigm shift in our understanding of the epidemiology and clinical features of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. Once classically described as an acute hepatitis associated with waterborne outbreaks in areas of poor sanitation, HEV is now recognised to be endemic in Europe and is probably zoonotic in origin. Evidence for transfusion‐transmitted HEV has prompted the introduction of blood donor screening in a number of countries, but the risk to the haematology patient from food sources remains. The aim of this review therefore, is to equip the clinical haematologist with the kno...
Source: British Journal of Haematology - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
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