Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Activity in Chlamydia muridarum and Chlamydia pneumoniae Infected Mouse Lung Tissues

Chlamydia trachomatis infections are the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections with potentially debilitating sequelae, such as infertility. Mouse models are generally used for vaccine development, to study the immune response and histopathology associated with Chlamydia infection. An important question regarding murine models is the in vivo identification of murine host genes responsible for the elimination of the murine and human Chlamydia strains. RNA sequencing of the Chlamydia muridarum infected BALB/c lung transcriptome revealed that several genes with direct antichlamydial functions were induced at the tissue level, including the already described and novel members of the murine interferon-inducible GTPase family, the CXCL chemokines CXCL9, CXCL11, immunoresponsive gene 1, nitric oxide synthase-2 (iNOS) and lipocalin-2. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1-2 (IDO1-2) previously described potent antichlamydial host enzymes were also highly expressed in the infected murine lungs. This finding was novel, since IDO was considered as a unique human antichlamydial defense gene. Besides a lower level of epithelial cell positivity, immunohistochemistry showed that IDO1-2 proteins were expressed prominently in macrophages. Detection of the tryptophan degradation product kynurenine and the impact of IDO inhibition on Chlamydia muridarum growth proved that the IDO1-2 proteins were functionally active. IDO1-2 activity also increased in Chlamydia muridarum infected C57BL/6 lung t...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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In 2018, the number of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) reported in the United States reached an all-time high. This is worrisome for many reasons. Having an STI can raise risks for HIV, infertility, pregnancy complications, and infant death. Fortunately, all of these outcomes can be avoided if people receive appropriate treatment. What are STIs? STIs are illnesses caused by microorganisms passed between people during sex. An STI can affect anyone who is exposed to it. Syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia are the most common bacterial infections. Trichomoniasis, a protozoan infection, is also diagnosed freque...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Adolescent health HIV Men's Health Relationships Sexual Conditions Women's Health Source Type: blogs
In this study, we evaluated a novel multiplex real-time PCR melting curve assay method for the simultaneous detection of 9 STD pathogens, including Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, and herpes simplex virus.Methods: The analytical performance of the method, including its limit of detection (LOD), specificity, repeatability, and effect on different DNA extraction kits were evaluated. Additionally, we obtained 1,328 clinical specimens from 3 hospitals to detect the 9 STD pathogens using multiplex real-time...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
The Australian research is the first to find the sexually transmitted disease in testicular tissue biopsies of infertile men with no identified cause for their infertility.
Source: WebMD Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONCanChlamydia be found in the testes of infertile men?SUMMARY ANSWERChlamydia can be found in 16.7% of fresh testicular biopsies and 45.3% of fixed testicular biopsies taken from a selection of infertile men.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYMale chlamydial infection has been understudied despite male and female infections occurring at similar rates. This is particularly true of asymptomatic infections, which occur in 50% of cases. Chlamydial infection has also been associated with increased sperm DNA damage and reduced male fertility.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONWe collected diagnostic (fixed,n = 100) a...
Source: Human Reproduction - Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research
Abstract Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the upper genital tract occurring predominantly in sexually active young women. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are common causes; however, other cervical, enteric, bacterial vaginosis-associated, and respiratory pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, may be involved. PID can be acute, chronic, or subclinical and is often underdiagnosed. Untreated PID can lead to chronic pelvic pain, infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and intra-abdominal infections. The diagnosis is made primarily on clinical suspicion, and empiric treatment is re...
Source: American Family Physician - Category: Primary Care Authors: Tags: Am Fam Physician Source Type: research
Deepti Tandon, Kiran Munne, Sanjay Chauhan, Anushree D PatilIndian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprology 2019 85(5):441-447 Despite adequate treatment of reproductive tract infection, there is persistence of symptoms in some patients. This raises the possibility of existence of other silent microbes with pathogenic potential. Apart from the common sexually transmitted organisms such as Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, there are other silent and emerging pathogens, like genital mycoplasma, which have been associated with cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and pregnancy-relate...
Source: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Source Type: research
The first-ever human trial of a genital-chlamydia vaccine suggests that it is safe and effective, according to a new study published in the Lancet. U.S. sexually transmitted illness diagnoses have reached new highs for the past four years in a row, and chlamydia is responsible for the bulk of those infections: 1.7 million cases were diagnosed in 2017 alone, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, compared to about 550,000 cases of gonorrhea, 40,000 cases of HIV and 30,000 cases of syphilis. Globally, the problem is even more widespread: about 127 million cases were diagnosed in 2016, according to ...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized embargoed study Research Source Type: news
Sexually transmitted infection with Chlamydia trachomatis may lead to fibrotic blockage in women’s upper genital tracts, resulting in tubal infertility. Intravaginal inoculation with C. muridarum readily induces fibrotic blockage or hydrosalpinx in mice and is used for investigating C. trachomatis pathogenicity. Using this model in combination with an antibody depletion approach, we confirmed CD4+ T cell-mediated protective immunity and a CD8+ T cell-dependent pathogenic mechanism during chlamydial infection in C57BL/6J mice. However, when mice genetically deficient in CD8+ T cells were evaluated, we found, surprisin...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Molecular Pathogenesis Source Type: research
Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen worldwide, and there is a need to control this epidemic. So far there is no established animal model in which both the horizontal and the vertical transmission of Chlamydia can be studied. To implement a horizontal sexual transmission model, male mice were inoculated in the meatus urethra with Chlamydia muridarum and they were caged with naive female mice. Urine and vaginal swab specimens were collected for culture. To study vertical transmission, newborns were euthanized and specimens were cultured. As controls, females were mated with sham-i...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Bacterial Infections Source Type: research
Conclusions In a nationally representative sample, 13.8% of reproductive-age women reported a history of infertility, of whom 40% did not access health care. Self-reported PID was associated with infertility, especially in young women. Annual chlamydia and gonorrhea screening to avert PID may reduce the burden of infertility in the United States.
Source: Sexually Transmitted Diseases - Category: Sexual Medicine Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research
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