The emerging role of immunotherapy for esophageal cancer

Purpose of review The management of esophageal cancer has not changed significantly over the last decade. Survival rates remain poor in locally advanced and metastatic disease. Newer treatment modalities are desperately needed if we are to improve 5-year overall survival rates. Immunotherapeutic strategies hold great promise, but a much greater understanding of the immune microenvironment underlying squamous cell and esophageal adenocarcinoma is needed if we are to exploit the inherent cancer fighting capabilities of each patient's immune system. Recent findings Here we describe current and future predictive biomarkers, provide a synopsis of the most significant trial results to date, and explain pivotal ongoing phase III trials. Summary Recent findings suggest that esophageal squamous cell carcinoma may be more sensitive to single agent PD-1 inhibition than esophageal adenocarcinoma, and selecting patients according to PD-L1 combined positive score (CPS) of at least 10 or more may predict higher response rate. We await data indicating the optimal immuno-oncology (IO-IO) combinations that will allow more patients to respond, however it is likely that personalized immunotherapy may be required for the majority. At the present time, it is hoped that chemotherapy combined with PD-1 inhibition will be an optimal strategy, but we await confirmation from soon-to-be published phase III trials.
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: ESOPHAGUS: Edited by Stuart J. Spechler Source Type: research

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Conclusions: Neoadjuvant radiation dose impacts pathological response in terms of pMR in oesophageal cancer patients. No radiation dose-response effect was observed for pCR. Further prospective trials are needed to investigate the dose-response relation in terms of pCR. PMID: 31432736 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Acta Oncologica - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Acta Oncol Source Type: research
Esophageal cancer is a highly lethal disease, especially in developing countries. China has been a high-incidence area of esophageal cancer for many years and accounts for over 50% of the global morbidity and mortality [1]. The two major histological types of esophageal cancer are squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and adenocarcinoma, and there is a striking geographical variation in the incidence of the esophageal cancer subtypes. In China, approximately 90% of patients with esophageal cancer are diagnosed with ESCC [2].
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Authors: Hao J, Li S, Li J, Jiang Z, Ghaffar M, Wang M, Jia R, Chen S, Wang Y, Zeng Y Abstract Esophageal carcinoma (EC) is the sixth most deadly of all cancers. It is among the most malignant cancers due to its highly aggressive nature and low survival rate. The incidence of EC is high in Asia, particularly in Southern areas including China, Iran and Japan. There is a large body of evidence to suggest an association between the melanoma antigen gene (MAGE) family and the initiation of cancer; however, there is no clear evidence to suggest an association between EC and MAGE. Discovery of the chemical and physiologi...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
Authors: Xie ZC, Wu HY, Ma FC, Dang YW, Peng ZG, Zhou HF, Chen G Abstract Alternative splicing (AS) has been widely reported to play an important role in cancers, including esophageal carcinoma (ESCA). However, no study has comprehensively investigated the clinical use of combination of prognostic AS events and clinicopathological parameters. Therefore, we collected 165 ESCA patients including 83 esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and 82 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas to explore the survival rate associated with seven types of AS events. Prognostic predictors for the cl...
Source: American Journal of Translational Research - Category: Research Tags: Am J Transl Res Source Type: research
Authors: Kelly RJ Abstract Esophageal cancer has a poor prognosis, with 5-year survival rates ranging from 20% to 35% in the nonmetastatic setting. Despite advances in surgical techniques and optimization of chemoradiotherapy regimens, overall survival benefits have been incremental at best. Esophageal cancer requires a concerted multidisciplinary approach, perhaps more so than any other tumor type given the integral role played by the esophagus in maintaining calorific intake and the propensity for early spread through the lymphatics. This review describes the latest in surgical techniques to minimize postoperativ...
Source: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Natl Compr Canc Netw Source Type: research
We presented the expressions of each member in miR-200 family in 15 types of cancer by boxplot, and analyzed the correlation among the members of miR-200 family by Spearman method. Different subgroup analyses were then performed based on the correlation among the members of miR-200 family, and the publication bias was assessed using the funnel plot of the Egger bias indicator test. RESULTS: Of 36 articles, including 15 tumor types and 4644 patients were included to perform meta-analysis. It was found that miR-200 family members can be used as independent protective factors in patients with various tumors but the miR-2...
Source: Gene - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Gene Source Type: research
Abstract With the increasing awareness of heterogeneity in cancers, better prediction of cancer prognosis is much needed for more personalized treatment. Recently, extensive efforts have been made to explore the variations in gene expression for better prognosis. However, the prognostic gene signatures predicted by most existing methods have little robustness among different datasets of the same cancer. To improve the robustness of the gene signatures, we propose a novel high-frequency sub-pathways mining approach (HiFreSP), integrating a randomization strategy with gene interaction pathways. We identified a six-g...
Source: Briefings in Bioinformatics - Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Tags: Brief Bioinform Source Type: research
Conditions:   Clinical Stage III Esophageal Adenocarcinoma AJCC v8;   Clinical Stage III Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v8;   Pathologic Stage III Esophageal Adenocarcinoma AJCC v8;   Pathologic Stage III Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v8;   Pathologic Stage IIIA Esophageal Adenocarcinom a AJCC v8;   Pathologic Stage IIIA Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v8;   Pathologic Stage IIIB Esophageal Adenocarcinoma AJCC v8;   Pathologic Stage IIIB Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v8;   Postneoadjuvant Therapy Stage III Esophageal Adenocarcinoma AJCC v8; &...
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Authors: Ajani JA, D'Amico TA, Bentrem DJ, Chao J, Corvera C, Das P, Denlinger CS, Enzinger PC, Fanta P, Farjah F, Gerdes H, Gibson M, Glasgow RE, Hayman JA, Hochwald S, Hofstetter WL, Ilson DH, Jaroszewski D, Johung KL, Keswani RN, Kleinberg LR, Leong S, Ly QP, Matkowskyj KA, McNamara M, Mulcahy MF, Paluri RK, Park H, Perry KA, Pimiento J, Poultsides GA, Roses R, Strong VE, Wiesner G, Willett CG, Wright CD, McMillian NR, Pluchino LA Abstract Esophageal cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common histology in Eastern Europe and Asia, and adenocarc...
Source: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Natl Compr Canc Netw Source Type: research
In this study, we selected 153 PDAC patients from the TCGA database and used their clinical, DNA methylation, gene expression, and micro-RNA (miRNA) and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression data for multi-omic analysis. Differential methylations at about 12,000 CpG sites were observed in PDAC tumor genomes, with about 61% of them hypermethylated, predominantly in the promoter regions and in CpG-islands. Chromosomes 20 and 18 showed the highest and lowest methylation densities, while chr7:27Mb-28Mb region turned out as the most hypermethylated region in the entire genome, which hosts several HOX-family genes. We corr...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
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