Cardiovascular Effects of Drugs Used to Treat Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Part 2: Impact on Cardiovascular Events and Recommendations for Evaluation and Monitoring

A variety of psychostimulant and nonpsychostimulant medications have proven to be successful in reducing inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Psychostimulants used to treat ADHD include methylphenidate and related drugs and various amphetamine preparations. Nonpsychostimulant medications used to treat ADHD include atomoxetine and 2 α-2 adrenergic agonists: guanfacine extended-release and clonidine extended-release. The psychostimulants and atomoxetine have been shown, on average, to increase heart rate by 3–10 beats/min, systolic blood pressure by 3–8 mm Hg, and diastolic BP by 2–14 mm Hg. These drugs may also delay ventricular repolarization. The α-2 adrenergic agonists may reduce heart rate and BP. For these reasons, there is concern about the safety of psychostimulant and nonpsychostimulant medications in patients with ADHD. Studies in healthy children adolescents and adults have not consistently shown a disproportionately high risk of major adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes, including sudden unexpected death. Those with underlying CV disease have, in general, tolerated these drugs well. Certain high-risk groups have been identified who may benefit from cardiology consultation prior to drug initiation. Several American and Canadian professional societies have published guidelines for CV evaluation, management, and monitoring of patients with ADHD who a...
Source: Cardiology in Review - Category: Cardiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

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Condition:   Attention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity Interventions:   Other: NEUROFEEDBACK;   Other: CONTROL Sponsors:   University Hospital, Geneva;   University of Geneva, Switzerland Enrolling by invitation
Source: - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Authors: Andrade C Abstract In observational studies, significant associations have often been identified between antidepressant drug prescription during pregnancy, on the one hand, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), on the other. Interpreting these associations is problematic because they are based on analyses that could not adjust for inadequately measured, unmeasured, and unknown confounds. Recent clinical data suggest that a genetic relationship exists between depression and neurodevelopmental disorders. A very recent study identified many genetic loci that w...
Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: J Clin Psychiatry Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Elevated risk of eating disorders as well as of MDD, OCD, and anxiety disorders was found in international adoptees. A parallel pattern between AN and OCD was observed, which both display less elevated rates than the other diagnoses. A considerable number of biological, environmental, and societal factors have been suggested to explain the observed differences in mental health between adoptees and non-adoptees, but they remain primarily theoretical. PMID: 32452335 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 26 May 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Dan Wang, Rong Hu, Qunxian Wang, Qin Zhang
Source: Neuroscience Letters - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
AbstractAlthough guidelines for the assessment and treatment of mental disorders in childhood and adolescence have been available in Germany for several years, there are barely any data on adherence to guidelines in national routine care. Therefore, the study aimed at a nationwide evaluation of guideline adherence (GA) for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in German routine care in various groups of health care providers (HCPs). Besides a detailed description of GA, the study focused on examining possible differences between professional groups. Fu...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Determination of atomoxetine or escitalopram in human plasma by HPLC: Applications in neuroscience research studies
. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2020 May 25;: Authors: Teichert J, Rowe JB, Ersche KD, Skandali N, Sacher J, Aigner A, Regenthal R Abstract BACKGROUND: Atomoxetine and escitalopram are potent and selective drugs approved for noradrenergic or serotonergic modulation of neuronal networks in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or depression, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods still play an important role in the therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of ...
Source: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Source Type: research
(University of Barcelona) The frequency of genetic variants associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has decreased progressively in the evolutionary human lineage from the Palaeolithic to nowadays, according to a study published in the journal Scientific Reports.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Food may trigger Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Therefore, an elimination diet (ED) might be an effective treatment for children with ADHD. However, earlier studies were criticized f...
Source: BMC Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Study protocol Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by inattention, impulsivity, diminished executive functions, and hyperactivity. Objective criteria can be used to assess the diagnosis and response of the disease to medications.Recent FindingsSeveral biomarkers belonging to electrophysiological, genetic, peripheral, and miRNA-based biomarkers have shown promise in studies to be an objective aid to clinical diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of ADHD.SummaryThis review article focuses on summarizing the existing evidence for differ...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - Category: Child Development Source Type: research
BACKGROUND: While a large amount of medical literature has explored the association between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Substance Use Disorders (SUDs), less attention has been dedicated to the typologies of SUD and their relationshi...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Alcohol and Other Drugs Source Type: news
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