The Humoral Immune Response to BCG Vaccination

Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) is the only currently available vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), but it confers incomplete and variable protection against pulmonary TB in humans and bovine TB (bTB) in cattle. Insights into the immune response induced by BCG offer an underexploited opportunity to gain knowledge that may inform the design of a more efficacious vaccine, which is urgently needed to control these major global epidemics. Humoral immunity in TB and bTB has been neglected, but recent studies supporting a role for antibodies in protection against TB has driven a growing interest in determining their relevance to vaccine development. In this manuscript we review what is known about the humoral immune response to BCG vaccination and re-vaccination across species, including evidence for the induction of specific B cells and antibodies; and how these may relate to protection from TB or bTB. We discuss potential explanations for often conflicting findings and consider how factors such as BCG strain, manufacturing methodology and route of administration influence the humoral response. As novel vaccination strategies include BCG prime-boost regimens, the literature regarding off-target immunomodulatory effects of BCG vaccination on non-specific humoral immunity is also reviewed. Overall, reported outcomes to date are inconsistent, but indicate that humoral responses are heterogeneous and may play different roles in different species, populations or individual hosts. ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Related Links:

Authors: Pu F, Feng J, Yang L, Zhang L, Xia P Abstract Compared to other diseases, early or atypical spinal tuberculosis (TB) is prone to being misdiagnosed due to the lack of specific clinical manifestations and misleading negative results of various laboratory analyses and imaging examinations. Various methods for diagnosing spinal TB have become research hotspots. Recently, it has been proposed that effective vaccination is a mainstay of long-term policies to combat and control the TB epidemic. However, some new TB vaccines require further evaluation and clinical trials to demonstrate their efficiency and safety...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
Conclusion: The Mtb infection status had a significant impact on mycobacterial growth inhibition in PBMC from healthy adults in South Korea, a country with an intermediate burden of tuberculosis, with healthy controls showing the greatest mycobacterial growth inhibition. Introduction Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which is a significant burden for the world, reaching 9.6 million new TB cases and 1.5 million deaths per year (1). Also, just under a quarter of the global population is latently infected with Mtb, and 5–10% of them will dev...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 7 January 2019Source: The Lancet Global HealthAuthor(s): Rebecca C Harris, Tom Sumner, Gwenan M Knight, Tom Evans, Vicky Cardenas, Chen Chen, Richard G WhiteSummaryBackgroundTuberculosis is the leading single-pathogen cause of death worldwide, and China has the third largest number of cases worldwide. New tools, such as new vaccines, are needed to meet WHO tuberculosis goals. Tuberculosis vaccine development strategies mostly target infants or adolescents, but given China's ageing epidemic, vaccinating older people might be important. We modelled the potential impact of new tuberculosis v...
Source: The Lancet Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 April 2018Source: Journal of Genetic Engineering and BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Ahyar Ahmad, Rosana Agus, Muh. Nasrum Massi, Rosdiana Natzir, Radha Madhyastha, Harish Kumar Madhyastha, Masugi MaruyamaAbstractThe appearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains leading to drug resistance has caused new problems in TB treatment in various parts of the world and forces WHO to declare TB as a global emergency. With the increase of TB drug resistance, it is convinced that a more effective vaccine development will stop the epidemic of TB. Some M. tuberculosis antigens, one of which is MPT83, ha...
Source: Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
Mechanisms of M. tuberculosis Immune Evasion as Challenges to TB Vaccine Design. Cell Host Microbe. 2018 Jul 11;24(1):34-42 Authors: Ernst JD Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) is a large global health problem, in part because of the long period of coevolution of the pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and its human host. A major factor that sustains the global epidemic of TB is the lack of a sufficiently effective vaccine. While basic mechanisms of immunity that protect against TB have been identified, attempts to improve immunity to TB by vaccination have been disappointing. This Review discusses the...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Cell Host Microbe Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 April 2018Source: Journal of Genetic Engineering and BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Ahyar Ahmad, Rosana Agus, Muh. Nasrum Massi, Rosdiana Natzir, Radha Madhyastha, Harish Kumar Madhyastha, Masugi MaruyamaAbstractThe appearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains leading to drug resistance has caused new problems in TB treatment in various parts of the world and forces WHO to declare TB as a global emergency. With the increase of TB drug resistance, it is convinced that a more effective vaccine development will stop the epidemic of TB. Some M. tuberculosis antigens, one of which is MPT83, ha...
Source: Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
An EU-funded project aims to identify and maximise the potential of novel vaccines to end the global tuberculosis epidemic. These could save lives, stem the spread of infection and shorten treatment for the often deadly, airborne disease.
Source: EUROPA - Research Information Centre - Category: Research Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 13 April 2018 Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Author(s): Ahyar Ahmad, Rosana Agus, Muh. Nasrum Massi, Rosdiana Natzir, Radha Madhyastha, Harish Kumar Madhyastha, Masugi Maruyama The appearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains leading to drug resistance has caused new problems in TB treatment in various parts of the world and forces WHO to declare TB as a global emergency. With the increase of TB drug resistance, it is convinced that a more effective vaccine development will stop the epidemic of TB. Some M. tuberculosis antigens, one of which is MPT83, have be...
Source: Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
Worldwide control of the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic has not been achieved, and the latest statistics show that the TB problem might be more endemic than previously thought. Although drugs and a TB vaccine are available, TB eradication faces the challenges of increasing occurrences of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research
Human tuberculosis remains a significant cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. The global economic impact of bovine TB is considerable. An effective vaccine would be the most cost-effective way to control both epidemics, particularly in emerging economies. TB vaccine research would benefit from the identification of an immune correlate of protection with which vaccines could be gated at both preclinical and clinical levels. In-vitro mycobacterial growth inhibition assays (MGIA) are functional assays that include most aspects of the complex host immune response to mycobacteria, and they may serve as functio...
Source: Tuberculosis - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
More News: Allergy & Immunology | Epidemics | Epidemiology | Study | Tuberculosis | Tuberculosis (BCG) Vaccine | Vaccines