The MELAS mutation m.3243A>G alters the expression of mitochondrial tRNA fragments

We present evidences that mt tRFs may be biologically relevant, as one of them (mt i-tRF GluUUC), likely produced by the action of the nuclease Dicer and whose levels are Ago2 dependent, down-regulates the expression of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 1 (MPC1), promoting the build-up of extracellular lactate. Therefore, our study underpins the idea that retrograde signaling from mitochondria is also mediated by mt tRFs. Finally, we show that accumulation of mt i-tRF GluUUC depends on the modification status of mt tRNAs, which is regulated by the action of stress-responsive miRNAs on mt tRNA modification enzymes.Graphical abstract
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Cell Research - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

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ConclusionKey parameters for the success of mitochondrial transplantation depend on the source and quality of isolated mitochondria, delivery protocol, and cellular uptake of supplemented mitochondria. To expedite clinical application of the mitochondrial transplantation, current isolation protocol needs optimization to obtain high percentage of functional mitochondria, isolated mitochondria may be packaged by biomaterials for successful delivery to brain allowing for efficient neuronal uptake.
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract Cerebral brain hemorrhage is associated with the highest mortality and morbidity despite only constituting approximately 10-15% of all strokes classified into intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage where most of the patients suffer from impairment in memory, weakness or paralysis in arms or legs, headache, fatigue, gait abnormality and cognitive dysfunctions. Understanding molecular pathology and finding the worsening cause of hemorrhage will lead to explore the therapeutic interventions that could prevent and cure the disease. Mitochondrial ETC-complexes dysfunction has been found to increase neur...
Source: CNS and Neurological Disorders Drug Targets - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research
In conclusion, there is solid evidence that obesity deregulates cellular mechanisms related to nutrient sensing. Altered Intercellular Communication It is accepted that aging impacts the organism at the cellular level, but also decreases the capacity of cells of an organism to interact. During aging, there is a decreased communication at the neuronal, neuroendocrine, and endocrine levels. Two of the most compelling examples of impaired communication are inflammaging and immunosenescence. The inflammaging phenotype results in elevated cytokines. These cytokines can accelerate and propagate the aging process. T...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 31 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Zoë P. Van Acker, Ken Declerck, Evi Luyckx, Wim Vanden Berghe, Sylvia DewildeAbstractNeuroglobin (Ngb) is a REST/NRSF-regulated protein, active in reactive oxygen species detoxification and cytochrome c inhibition, which provides a beneficial outcome in pathologies as Alzheimer's disease and strokes. Considering that oxidative stress and cell death are typical hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we sought to explore Ngb's involvement along this disease progression. Ngb transcription was detected to be 2-fold down-regulated in la...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Background: Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in the pathogenesis of Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the development of diabetes related complications such as cardiovascular disease and stroke. Mitochondria produce several small polypeptides that may influence mitochondrial function and may impact on insulin sensitivity, such as humanin (HN) and the mitochondrial open reading frame of the 12S rRNA type-c (MOTS-c) that are mitochondrial derived proteins (MDP). The aim of this study was to determine MDP in normal, prediabetes and diabetes subjects. Subjects and measurements: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The varied pharmacological mechanisms of NBP involve many complex molecular mechanisms; however, there many unknown pharmacological effects await further study.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0. PMID: 31107716 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Chinese Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Chin Med J (Engl) Source Type: research
Antonio Lucena-Cacace1, Masayuki Umeda1, Lola E. Navas2,3 and Amancio Carnero2,3* 1Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan 2CIBERONC, ISCIII, Madrid, Spain 3Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBIS), Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío (HUVR), CSIC, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain Glioma Cancer Stem-Like Cells (GSCs) are a small subset of CD133+ cells with self-renewal properties and capable of initiating new tumors contributing to Glioma progression, maintenance, hierarchy, and complexity. GSCs are highly res...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Alessia Buso1†, Marina Comelli1†, Raffaella Picco1, Miriam Isola1, Benedetta Magnesa1, Rado Pišot2, Joern Rittweger3,4, Desy Salvadego1, Boštjan Šimunič2, Bruno Grassi1,5 and Irene Mavelli1,6* 1Department of Medicine, University of Udine, Udine, Italy 2Institute for Kinesiology Research, Science and Research Centre, Koper, Slovenia 3Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany 4Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Cologne, Germany 5Institute of Bioimaging and Molecular Physiology, National Research Council...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Using three different strategies to either prevent formation or enhance elimination of O2⋅_ during the post-asphyxial period, we saw both reduced leukocyte adherence and preserved BBB function with treatment. These findings suggest that agents which lower O2⋅_ in brain may be attractive new therapeutic interventions for the protection of the neonatal brain following asphyxia. Introduction Asphyxia is a relatively common source of neonatal brain damage (1), affecting ~2 in every 1,000 births (2). The hypoxic ischemia resulting from this oxygen deprivation can produce long-term sequelae, includi...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Albert Sanfeliu1, Karsten Hokamp2, Michael Gill1 and Daniela Tropea1,3*1Neuropsychiatric Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Trinity Translational Medicine Institute, St James Hospital, Dublin, Ireland2Department of Genetics, School of Genetics and Microbiology, Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland3Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Trinity College Institute for Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, IrelandRett syndrome is a rare neuropsychiatric disorder with a wide symptomatology including impaired communication and movement, cardio-respiratory abno...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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