Cytokine interference in infection
NIH Director's Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series Dr. O'Garra's laboratory studies cells and molecules that control our immune systems to understand how they respond to infections and influence the outcomes and what goes wrong when infections damage healthy cells. For example, some infected individuals are protected while others go on to progress to disease such as tuberculosis (TB), which is caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). TB is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and efforts to control this disease are hampered by difficulties with diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. Most people infected with M. tuberculosis remain asymptomatic or have latent (noninfectious) TB, but they have a 10 percent lifetime risk of developing the active form of the disease. In 2010, Dr. O'Garra's laboratory identified a gene signature dominated by type I interferon (IFN) inducible genes in the bloodstream of people with TB, which disappears during successful treatment. The lab is also studying the regulation and function of type I IFNs which exacerbate bacterial infections, in part, by inducing a regulatory cytokine called IL-10. Type I IFNs are cytokines that have been shown for years to be important in the control of viral infections. In experimental models, the lab showed that elevated levels of this cytokine lead to increased TB disease; subsequent studies now provide further knowledge regarding the heterogeneity of this blood signature in s...
Tuberculosis (TB) is highly prevalent worldwide, and it affects children and adults equally, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging plays a crucial role in diagnosis and management. Knowledge of imaging modalities available, imaging manifestations of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis, is vital for the radiologist for timely diagnosis among children with TB.
[Govt of SA] Western Cape Government launches first-of-a-kind public facing TB dashboard to help monitor the province's TB response
CONCLUSION: According to our study, tuberculin skin test is a reliable and sensitive test for diagnosis of latent tuberculosis in liver transplant candidates. Isoniazid prophylaxis is well tolerated in patients with end stage liver diseases and liver transplant recipients.PMID:34540155 | PMC:PMC8408033 | DOI:10.18502/ijm.v13i2.5981
CONCLUSION: Although the NTM species has a small portion in TB suspected patients, their prevalence has increased, mainly in elderly patients. Moreover, M. simiae was the most prevalent NTM species in our region. Therefore, identification of common species in each region is recommended and clinicians should pay more attention to them in each region.PMID:34540154 | PMC:PMC8408032 | DOI:10.18502/ijm.v13i2.5980
by Narendran Gopalan, Vignes Anand Srinivasalu, Ponnuraja Chinnayan, Banurekha Velayutham, Adhin Bhaskar, Ramesh Santhanakrishnan, Thirumaran Senguttuvan, Sridhar Rathinam, Mahilmaran Ayyamperumal, Kumar Satagopan, Dhanalakshmi Rajendran, Tamizhselvan Manoharan, Sekar Lakshmanan, Paulkumaran Paramasivam, Dhanalakshmi Angamuthu, Mangalambal Ganesan, John Washington Easudoss Arockia, Ramesh Babu Venkatesan, Venkatesan Lakshmipathy, Shivakumar Shanmugham, Balaji Subramanyam, Shakila Shankar, Jawahar Mohideen Shaheed, Baskaran Dhanaraj, Narayanan Paranji Ramiyengar, Soumya Swaminathan, Padmapriyadarsini Chandrasekaran Introduc...
ConclusionsECMO has won the opportunity for the diagnosis and treatment of this young patient who suffered from a rare cause of cardiac arrest and finally achieved a good prognosis.
In conclusion, our preliminary data suggest a diagnostic and prognostic role for rLiHyQ against leishmaniasis.PMID:34537185 | DOI:10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.106126
Purpose of review Analyses of the host transcriptional response to infection has proved to be an alternative diagnostic strategy to standard direct pathogen detection. This review summarizes the value of applying blood and mucosal transcriptome analyses for the diagnosis and management of children with viral and bacterial infections. Recent findings Over the years, studies have validated the concept that RNA transcriptional profiles derived from children with infectious diseases carry a pathogen-specific biosignature that can be qualitatively and quantitively measured. These biosignatures can be translated into ...