Optimizing radiotherapy with immune checkpoint blockade in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Optimizing radiotherapy with immune checkpoint blockade in hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2019 May 28;25(20):2416-2429 Authors: Choi C, Yoo GS, Cho WK, Park HC Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer, and its incidence is rapidly increasing in North America and Western Europe as well as South-East Asia. Patients with advanced stage HCC have very poor outcomes; therefore, the discovery of new innovative approaches is urgently needed. Cancer immunotherapy has become a game-changer and revolutionized cancer treatment. A comprehensive understanding of tumor-immune interactions led to the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) as new therapeutic tools, which have been used with great success. Targeting immune checkpoint molecules such as programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein-4 (CTLA-4) reinvigorates anti-tumor immunity by restoring exhausted T cells. Despite their effectiveness in several types of cancer, of the many immune suppressive mechanisms limit the efficacy of ICI monotherapy. Radiation therapy (RT) is an essential local treatment modality for a broad range of malignancies, and it is currently gaining extensive attention as a promising combination partner with ICIs because of its ability to trigger immunogenic cell death. The efficacy of combination approaches using RT and ICIs has been well documented in numerous preclinical and clinical studies on va...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

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Authors: Kreidieh M, Zeidan YH, Shamseddine A Abstract Treatment recommendations for primary liver malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), are complex and require a multidisciplinary approach. Despite surgical options that are potentially curative, options for nonsurgical candidates include systemic therapy, radiotherapy (RT), transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) is now in routine use for the treatment of lung cancer, and there is growing evidence supporting its use in liver tumors. SBRT has...
Source: Journal of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research
By BISHAL GYAWALI, MD Keynote speech on the JAVELIN not going far enough to improve survival The treatment landscape for metastatic renal-cell carcinoma has changed dramatically with the introduction of immunotherapies. Unfortunately though, we are promoting combinations over single agents without having much idea of added benefit of each drug. This is an important issue because when we combine two drugs, the only thing we are certain of are the added toxicities. PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab had improved OS when given in second line, however nivolumab was tested in combination with ipilimumab (not as a nivolumab monother...
Source: The Health Care Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Medical Practice Physicians Bishal Gyawali Clinical Trials Oncology PD-1 inhibitor Source Type: blogs
Discussion In this section, we discuss the mechanisms responsible for lymphomagenesis in the various inborn errors of immunity and provide an overview of the treatment. Defects in Immune Responses That Predispose to Lymphomagenesis in PIDDs The complex immune mechanisms and their interplay that predisposes to neoplastic transformation of B or T cells and development of lymphomas in PIDD patients has not been fully elucidated. However, it is expected that the etiology in most cases is multifactorial and related to a dynamic regulation of immune response and environmental triggers (Figure 3). An underlying intrinsic susce...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This study was supported by the Shanghai Sailing Program [grant number 17YF1425200, 2017]; Chinese National Natural Science Funding [grant number 81702249, 2017]; Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality [grant number 17511103403, 2017]; The funder has no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Acknowledgments We acknowledge the ex...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
This study was supported in part by the National Cancer Center Research and Development Fund (25-A-7 and 28-A-8); Health and Labor Science Research Grants for Clinical Research, Japan; and joint research funding from Takeda Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd.; Noile-Immune Biotech Inc.; Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.; BrightPath Biotherapeutics Co., Ltd.; and Sysmex Co., Ltd. This study was performed as part of a research program of the Project for Development of Innovative Research on Cancer Therapeutics (P-Direct), Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. Conflict of Interest Statement TN, TS, and TY ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Authors: Wang S, Wang A, Lin J, Xie Y, Wu L, Huang H, Bian J, Yang X, Wan X, Zhao H, Huang J Abstract The incidence of brain metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (BMHCC) is becoming more frequent than that of the past as a result of prolonged survival of patients with HCC. Compared with brain metastases from other types of cancer, BMHCC tends to exhibit a high incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and poor liver function. Unfortunately, the prognosis is extremely poor for patients with BMHCC owing to the limited treatment selection. Currently, optimal treatment requires multidisciplinary approaches includ...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
For more nearly four decades, our research has focused on one challenge: improving the delivery and efficacy of anti-cancer therapies. Working on the hypothesis that the abnormal tumor microenvironment fuels tumor progression and treatment resistance, we developed an array of novel imaging technologies and animal models as well as mathematical models to unravel the complex biology of tumors. Using these tools, we demonstrated that the blood and lymphatic vasculature, fibroblasts, immune cells and the extracellular matrix associated with tumors are abnormal, which together create a hostile biochemical and physical tumor mic...
Source: Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Keynote Lectures Source Type: research
Patient advocates generously volunteered their time to take notes at the recent 8th International Kidney Cancer Symposium, in Chicago.  These notes are intended to capture the essence of this important medical meeting and convey it in a way that is useful to patients, survivors, and their families.  The first installment sumarizes the Saturday morning session. Integration of Surgical and Systemic Therapy in Metastatic RCC  This session was opened by Dr. Bradley Leibovich who presented two cases on which the audience voted on methods to integrate surgery with systemic treatment interventions.  T...
Source: Kidney Cancer Association - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: news
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