Cardiovascular and renal outcomes of incretin-based therapies: A review of recent clinical trials.

Cardiovascular and renal outcomes of incretin-based therapies: A review of recent clinical trials. Curr Cardiol Rev. 2019 Jun 03;: Authors: Kyriakos G, Quiles-Sanchez LV, Garmpi A, Farmaki P, Kyre K, Savvanis S, Memi E Abstract BACKGROUND: To report the cardiovascular and renal effects of incretin-based therapies. METHOD: The studies of clinical trials on incretin-based therapy published in medical journals from years 2010 to 2017 were comprehensively searched using MEDLINE and EMBASE with no language restriction. The studies were reviewed and the cardiovascular and renal risks reported were recorded. RESULTS: Incretin-based therapeutics represent novel and promising anti-diabetes drugs, the direct cardiovascular actions of which may translate into demonstrable clinical benefits on cardiovascular outcomes. Furthermore incretin-based therapies do not adversely affect renal function. PMID: 31161994 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Cardiology Reviews - Category: Cardiology Tags: Curr Cardiol Rev Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 7 November 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Carolyn F DeaconAbstractGlucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a gastrointestinal hormone with insulinotropic and glucagonotropic actions, and is believed to be the more physiologically important incretin hormone in healthy humans. Together with the other incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), it plays an important role in regulating glucose homeostasis. Both GLP-1 and GIP are substrates of the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), and DPP-4 inhibitors, which potentiate their effects on glycaemic control, are now used t...
Source: Peptides - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 4 November 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): A.E. Adriaenssens, F.M. Gribble, F. ReimannAbstractGlucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin hormone released from the epithelium of the upper small intestine. While GIP shares common actions on the pancreatic beta cell with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), unlike GLP-1, GIP presents a complex target for the development of diabetes and obesity therapies due to its extra-pancreatic effects on fat mass. Recent pharmacological developments, however, have provided insight into a previously unrecognized role for GIP receptor (GI...
Source: Peptides - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
ConclusionsOur findings suggest that, in an unselected population, the use of both classes of incretin-based medications is not associated with an increased risk of cholangiocarcinoma.
Source: Acta Diabetologica - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Lærke S. Gasbjerg, Natasha C. Bergmann, Signe Stensen, Mikkel B. Christensen, Mette M. Rosenkilde, Jens J. Holst, Michael Nauck, Filip K. KnopAbstractGlucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) potentiate glucose-induced insulin secretion and are therefore thought to be responsible for the incretin effect. The magnitude of the incretin effect, defined as the fraction of postprandial insulin secretion stimulated by intestinal factors, has been reported to be up to ∼60% in healthy individuals. In ...
Source: Peptides - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
This study aimed to evaluate the acute effects of GLP-1 on improving aortic endothelial dysfunction in diabetic mice. Additionally, we examined whether GLP-1 elucidated the underlying mechanisms. Using the diabetic mouse models induced by nicotinamide and streptozotocin, we investigated the functional changes in the aorta caused by GLP-1. Organ baths were performed for vascular reactivity in isolated aortic rings, and western blotting was used for protein analysis. The diabetic aortas showed enhanced GLP-1-induced relaxation response and nitric oxide (NO) production. However, the pretreatment of GLP-1 did not significantly...
Source: European Journal of Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Eur J Pharmacol Source Type: research
Abstract Macrophages play a critical role in the immune response against pathogen invasion and injury. However, under pathological stress, macrophages could have aberrant roles and contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory associated diseases. Exenatide is a glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) agonist, which belongs to the family of synthetic exendin-based incretin mimetic. Exendin related compounds reduce glucose levels in type 2 diabetes patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of exendin-4 in LPS-induced activation of macrophages. We show that exendin-4 inhibits LPS-induc...
Source: International Immunopharmacology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Int Immunopharmacol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 October 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): M.A. Nauck, H. Holle, M. Kahle, A. Tytko, C.F. Deacon, J.J. Holst, J.J. MeierAbstractBackground, aimsIn patients with type 2 diabetes, the lost insulinotropic effect of the incretin hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is more apparent after continuous versus bolus administration. To test whether the difference might be explained by rapid tachyphylaxis in response to elevated concentrations of GIP, and whether patients with type 2 diabetes and their relatives are more susceptible to tachyphylaxis than healthy subjects.Patient...
Source: Peptides - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: To investigate the metabolic effects of FFAR4-selective agonists on islet and enteroendocrine cell hormone release and the combined therapeutic effectiveness with DPP-IV inhibitors. METHODS: Insulinotropic activity and specificity of FFAR4 agonists were determined in clonal pancreatic BRIN-BD11 cells. Expression of FFAR4 was assessed by qPCR and western blotting following agonist treatment in BRIN-BD11 cells and by immunohistochemistry in mouse islets. Acute in-vivo effects of agonists was investigated after intraperitoneal (i.p.) or oral administration in lean and HFF-obese diabetic mice...
Source: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Eur J Pharm Sci Source Type: research
ConclusionsDiabetes increases the severity of impairment in PD, and GLP-1 improve it through its direct neuronal effect in addition to its indirect effect through producing hypoglycemia.Graphical abstract
Source: Neurochemistry International - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Authors: Srivastava S, Pandey H, Singh SK, Tripathi YB Abstract The earlier assessment of Pueraria tuberosa (PT) has shown anti-diabetic effects through enhancing incretin action and DPP-IV (Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV) inhibition. The aim of this work was to further explore the protective role of aqueous extract of Pueraria tuberosa tuber (PTY-2) against streptozotocin (STZ) induced islet stress in rats. Diabetes was induced by STZ (65 mg/kg body weight) in charles foster male rats. After 60 days of STZ administration, animals with blood glucose levels> 200 g/dL were considered as diabetic. All the rats were later ...
Source: BioScience Trends - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Biosci Trends Source Type: research
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