Antiviral activity of Portulaca oleracea L. against influenza A viruses

ConclusionsWe demonstrate the anti-IAV activity of WEPO and strongly recommend the use of WEPO, as an herbal regimen, to prevent and treat H1N1 infection at an early stage.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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We describe how CD8+ CTL memory is established following influenza virus infection, and how a robust CTL recall response can lead to more rapid virus elimination by destroying virus-infected cells, and recovery. Exploiting long-term, cross-reactive CTL against the continuously evolving and unpredictable influenza viruses provides a possible mechanism for preventing a disastrous pandemic comparable to the 1918-1919 H1N1 “Spanish flu”, which killed more than 50 million people worldwide.
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Abstract Swine are reservoirs for anthropogenic/zoonotic influenza viruses, and the prevalence and repeated introduction of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (pdm/09) into pigs raises the possibility of generating novel swine influenza viruses with the potential to infect humans. However, studies aiming to identify miRNAs involved in the transfer of novel swine influenza virus infection to human cells are rare. In this investigation, from the view of small RNA, microarrays and high-throughput sequencing were used to detect differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs after human lung epithelial cells were infect...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
In conclusion, the reported results highlight the importance of AIV attachment to trachea in many avian species. Finally, the importance of chickens and mallards in AIVs dynamics was illustrated by the abundant AIV attachment observed. Introduction Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are pathogens of global concern in both human and veterinary medicine (Webster et al., 1992; Stöhr, 2002; Olsen et al., 2006; Wiethoelter et al., 2015). Wild birds are well-described hosts of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) and longitudinal surveillance studies have demonstrated a plethora of low pathogenic AIVs (LPAIVs) circulating in wild...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Human challenge studies and systems biology approaches are important tools that should be used in concert to advance our understanding of influenza infection and provide targets for novel therapeutics and immunizations. Introduction Although influenza virus was recognized as an important pathogen over a century ago, influenza continues to cause a significant burden of disease. In the United States alone, it's estimated that in the 2017–2018 season there were 959,000 hospitalizations related to influenza illness, and 79,400 deaths (CDC, 2018). Worldwide, WHO estimates that annual influenza...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Jennifer M. Rudd1, Sivasami Pulavendran1, Harshini K. Ashar1, Jerry W. Ritchey1, Timothy A. Snider1, Jerry R. Malayer1, Montelongo Marie1, Vincent T. K. Chow2 and Teluguakula Narasaraju1* 1Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, United States2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore Exaggerated host innate immune responses have been implicated in severe influenza pneumonia. We have previously demonstrated that excessive neutrophils recruited during in...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
The objective of this preclinical study was to assess the protective immunity induced by immunization with group 1 hemagglutinin-specific influenza virus vaccines based on chimeric hemagglutinins (cHAs) in a ferret model of influenza. The experimental designs and immunization strategies are summarized in Figure 1. Since most human adults have a primed repertoire of B cells with specificity to the HA stalk domain (19, 30), we included an influenza B virus expressing cH9/1 (B-cH9/1) to mimic pre-existing HA stalk immunity. We then compared the ability of our sequential immunization strategies to boost antibody titers against...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study, we used a swine pH1N1 challenge virus to investigate the efficacy of whole inactivated virus vaccines homologous or heterologous to the challenge virus as well as a commercial vaccine. We found that vaccine-mediated protection was most effective when vaccine antigen and challenge virus were homologous and correlated with the specific production of neutralising antibodies and a cellular response to the challenge virus. We conclude that a conventional whole inactivated SwIV vaccine must be antigenically matched to the challenge strain to be an effective control measure. PMID: 30914224 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
The flu season is up and running in the Northern Hemisphere, and early signs in both the United States and Europe are that the effects might not be quite as severe as the brutal 2017/18 season. The United States is predominantly seeing H1N1 circulating, while monitoring in Europe has identified co-circulation of H1N1 and H3N2—both varieties of Influenza A that should be covered by the seasonable vaccine. What if they weren’t though? Influenza A can be found in both human and animal populations, and it evolves rapidly through genetic mutation. Each year many humans rely on their country&a...
Source: MDDI - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: IVD Source Type: news
In this study, we used in silico approach to derive FluAPep1 from highly conserved region, PAN-PB1C interface and generated 121 FluAPep1 analogues. Interestingly, we found that the FluAPep1 interaction region in the PAN domain are highly conserved in many FluA subtypes. Especially, FluAPep1 targets two pandemic FluA strains, H1N1/avian/2009 and H3N2/Victoria/1975. All of these FluA subtypes PAN domain (H1N1/H3N2CAN/H3N2VIC/H7N1/H7N2) were superimposed with PAN domain from H17N10 and the calculated root mean standards deviations were less than 3 Å. FlexPepDock analysis revealed that FluAPep1 exhibited higher bi...
Source: Computational Biology and Chemistry - Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Tags: Comput Biol Chem Source Type: research
Influenza has been impacting public health on a global scale since the beginning of recorded history. Influenza, also known as the “flu,” has numerous organizations committed to public health research, developing vaccines, and educating on best practices to prepare for the upcoming flu season. By gaining an understanding of the flu through history, virology, and how it impacts our society, we can have a better appreciation for the commitment that’s involved with combating the flu. What Is Influenza (and What’s Not)? The eyes of an epidemiologist can twitch for a variety of reasons, one of them being...
Source: JEMS Special Topics - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Tags: Exclusive Articles Operations Source Type: news
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