Imaging the execution phase of neuroinflammatory disease models.

Imaging the execution phase of neuroinflammatory disease models. Exp Neurol. 2019 May 29;:112968 Authors: Schumacher AM, Misgeld T, Kerschensteiner M, Snaidero N Abstract In vivo imaging of the rodent spinal cord has advanced our understanding of how resident cells of the central nervous system (CNS) respond to neuroinflammation. By combining two-photon imaging and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the most widely used rodent model of multiple sclerosis (MS), it has been possible, for example, to study how axons degenerate when confronted with inflammatory cells, how oligodendrocytes get damaged in inflammatory lesions, and how immune cells themselves adapt their phenotype and functionality to the changing lesion environment. Similar approaches are now increasingly used to study other forms of neuroinflammation, such as antibody/complement-mediated neuromyelitis optica spectrum disease (NMOSD). To tackle the most pressing open questions in the field, new biosensors and indicator mice that report the metabolic state and interaction of cells in neuroinflammatory lesions are being developed. Moreover, the field is moving towards new anatomical sites of inflammation, such as the cortical gray matter, but also towards longer observation intervals to reveal the chronic perturbations and adaptations that characterize advanced stages of MS. PMID: 31152743 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Experimental Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

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FINDINGSA UCLA study revealed that a gene on the X chromosome may help explain why more women than men develop multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases. Researchers found that a gene known as  Kdm6a was expressed more in women’s immune cells than in men’s, and expressed more in female mice than in males.When the Kdm6a gene was eliminated in mice that were bred to mimic a disease like MS, they had improved symptoms, reduced inflammation and less damage to their spinal cords.BACKGROUNDWomen ’s risk of developing MS is about three times greater than men’s, and women have stronger immu...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory, likely autoimmune disease of the central nervous system with a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors, among which Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is a strong suspect. We have previously identified increased autoantibody levels toward the chloride-channel protein Anoctamin 2 (ANO2) in MS....
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research
M. Yassine For a long time, viruses have been shown to modify the clinical picture of several autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes (T1D), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjögren’s syndrome (SS), herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK), celiac disease (CD), and multiple sclerosis (MS). Best examples of viral infections that have been proposed to modulate the induction and development of autoimmune diseases are the infections with enteric viruses such as Coxsackie B virus (CVB) and rotavirus, as well as influenza A viruses (IAV), and herpesviruses. Other viruses that ...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
ConclusionsOur results might provide fundamentals for the development of new markers of the biological effects of IFN-β therapy.
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
This study indicated that middle and high doses of vitamin D3 deviate the balance between Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg to Th2 and Treg. Moreover, vitamin D3 could reduce the incidence and severity of EAE clinical disease. PMID: 31402771 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Neurological Research - Category: Neurology Tags: Neurol Res Source Type: research
Although effective in reducing relapse rate and delaying progression, current therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) do not completely halt disease progression. T cell autoimmunity to myelin antigens is conside...
Source: Journal of Neuroinflammation - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 31411745 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: European Journal of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Eur J Immunol Source Type: research
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a putative T cell–mediated autoimmune disease. As with many autoimmune diseases, females are more susceptible than males. Sexual dimorphisms may be due to differences in sex hormones, sex chromosomes, or both. Regarding sex chromosome genes, a small percentage of X chromosome genes escape X inactivation and have higher expression in females (XX) compared with males (XY). Here, high-throughput gene expression analysis in CD4+ T cells showed that the top sexually dimorphic gene was Kdm6a, a histone demethylase on the X chromosome. There was higher expression of Kdm6a in females compared with ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
This study concisely shows the value of X chromosome gene expression in T cell regulation of autoimmunity and the relevance of Kdm6a in the pathogenesis of EAE as a model of MS.
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Condition:   Multiple Sclerosis Intervention:   Other: Blood sampling Sponsors:   University College, London;   University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust Recruiting
Source: - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
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