Neuroimaging Markers of Risk, Disease Expression, and Resilience to Bipolar Disorder

AbstractPurpose of ReviewFamilial predisposition to bipolar disorder is associated with increased risk of affective morbidity in the first-degree relatives of patients. Nevertheless, a substantial proportion of relatives remain free of psychopathology throughout their lifetime. A series of studies reviewed here were designed to test whether resilience in these high-risk individuals is associated with adaptive brain plasticity.Recent FindingsThe findings presented here derive from structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from patients, their resilient first-degree relatives, and healthy individuals. Patients and relatives showed similar abnormalities in activation and connectivity while performing tasks of interference control and facial affect recognition and in the resting-state connectivity of sensory and motor regions. Resilient relatives manifested unique neuroimaging features that differentiated them from patients and healthy individuals. Specifically, they had larger cerebellar vermis volume, enhanced prefrontal connectivity during task performance, and enhanced functional integration of the default mode network in task-free conditions.SummaryResilience to bipolar disorder is not the reverse of risk but is associated with adaptive brain changes indicative of increased neural reserve. This line of research may open new avenues in preventing and treating bipolar disorder.
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

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This study investigated whether high ‐density endocardial bipolar voltage mapping of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) during sinus rhythm may guide catheter ablation of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias (VAs).Methods and ResultsForty ‐four patients (18 males, mean age 38.1±13.8) with idiopathic RVOT VAs and negative cardiac magnetic resonance imaging underwent a stepwise mapping approach for the identification of the site of origin (SOO). High‐density electronatomical mapping (1096.6±322.3 points) was performed during sinu s rhythm and identified at least two low bipolar voltage areas
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ‐ CLINICAL Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019Source: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological PsychiatryAuthor(s): Zhinan Yu, Jiaolong Qin, Xinyuan Xiong, Fengguo Xu, Jun Wang, Fengzhen Hou, Albert YangAbstractTwo popular debilitating illness, unipolar depression (UD) and bipolar disorder (BD), have the similar symptoms and tight association on the psychopathological level, leading to a clinical challenge to distinguish them. In order to figure out the underlying common and different mechanism of both mood disorders, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data derived from 36 UD pati...
Source: Progress in Neuro Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Publication date: October 2019Source: Epilepsy &Behavior, Volume 99Author(s): Ravindra Arya, Brian Ervin, Jonathan Dudley, Jason Buroker, Leonid Rozhkov, Craig Scholle, Paul S. Horn, Jennifer Vannest, Anna W. Byars, James L. Leach, Francesco T. Mangano, Hansel M. Greiner, Katherine D. Holland, Tracy A. GlauserAbstractObjectiveWe prospectively validated stereo-electroencephalography (EEG) electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) of language against a reference standard of meta-analytic functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) framework (Neurosynth).MethodsLanguage ESM was performed using 50 Hz, biphasic, bipolar, stim...
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract OBJECTIVE: We prospectively validated stereo-electroencephalography (EEG) electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) of language against a reference standard of meta-analytic functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) framework (Neurosynth). METHODS: Language ESM was performed using 50 Hz, biphasic, bipolar, stimulation at 1-8 mA, with a picture naming task. Electrode contacts (ECs) were scored as ESM+ if ESM interfered with speech/language function. For each patient, presurgical MRI was transformed to a standard space and coregistered with computed tomographic (CT) scan to obtain EC locations. After...
Source: Epilepsy and Behaviour - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Epilepsy Behav Source Type: research
AbstractMany cardiac catheter interventions require accurate discrimination between healthy and infarcted myocardia. The gold standard for infarct imaging is late gadolinium –enhanced MRI (LGE-MRI), but during cardiac procedures electroanatomical or electromechanical mapping (EAM or EMM, respectively) is usually employed. We aimed to improve the ability of EMM to identify myocardial infarction by combining multiple EMM parameters in a statistical model. From a porcine infarction model, 3D electromechanical maps were 3D registered to LGE-MRI. A multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression model was fitted to predic...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Conclusions: The low reherniation rate in patients treated by the coblation-assisted microdiscectomy suggests that this technique may reduce the reherniation risk. Clinical outcomes for pain and function at 4 years follow-up compared favorably with literature data. Randomized controlled trial could confirm these results.
Source: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractSurgical clipping of an internal carotid artery (ICA) –posterior communicating artery (ICPC) aneurysm is often difficult in cases involving limited space to insert a clip at the proximal aneurysm neck hidden by the tent. In such cases, we perform incision of the anterior petroclinoidal fold to secure the proximal space for clip insertion. Between Apr il 2013 and March 2018, we treated 89 ICPC aneurysm cases by clipping. Incision of the anterior petroclinoidal fold was performed in 15 of the 89 cases (16.8%). Fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can indicate...
Source: Neurosurgical Review - Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Bipolar disorders increase the risk of dementia and show biological and brain alterations, which resemble accelerated aging. Lithium may counter some of these processes and lower the risk of dementia. However, until now no study has specifically investigated the effects of Li on brain age. METHODS: We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging scans from 84 participants with bipolar disorders (41 with and 43 without Li treatment) and 45 controls. We used a machine learning model trained on an independent sample of 504 controls to estimate the individual brain ages of study participants...
Source: The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Aust N Z J Psychiatry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 June 2019Source: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological PsychiatryAuthor(s): Aldara Alvarez-Astorga, Eva Sotelo, Alba Lubeiro, Rodrigo de Luis, Javier Gomez-Pilar, Begoña Becoechea, Vicente MolinaAbstractSocial cognition deficits are found in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, but its neural underpinnings are poorly understood. Given the complexity of psychological functions underlying this kind of cognition, we hypothesized that alterations in global structural connectivity could contribute to those deficits. To test this hypothesis, we studied a group of schizoph...
Source: Progress in Neuro Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
ConclusionLow-voltage zones and regions of delayed conduction determined using a real-time MR-EP system are moderately associated with LGE areas identified on MRI.
Source: Europace - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
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