PERSPECTIVES Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus: Emerging and Re-Emerging Enterically Transmitted Hepatitis Viruses

Over the past two decades, progress in understanding human infections with hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been eclipsed by the priority of combating persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. During that time, the global burden of liver disease caused by enteric hepatitis viruses has not abated. Because of vaccines, hepatitis A has become increasingly a disease of adults instead of early childhood in many regions of the world, resulting in an age-related shift toward more severe disease. HEV has remained endemic in many developing countries, and in well-developed, economically advanced countries it is now recognized as a cause of chronic, progressive liver disease in individuals with compromised immunity. The goal of this collection of articles is to review recent progress and to shine a bright light on gaps in our understanding of how these viruses replicate, cause disease, interact with the liver and host immune system, and are transmitted, along with prospects for improved control in human populations. Renewed efforts to study and compare HAV and HEV biology in humans and animal models have high potential to enhance our understanding of host–pathogen balance in the liver, and may contribute ultimately to the control of other infectious diseases of the liver.
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Enteric Hepatitis Viruses PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

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Discussion and conclusion: Maybe it was a case of drug-induced liver disease, however therapeutic dosages of all administered drugs only once. The mechanisms involved were not investigated, but may be the result of allergic and immunologic aspects caused by ketoprofen and facilitated by a history of hypersensitivity to other NSAIDs as reported by the patient. As for jaundice can be attributed to drug toxicity since laboratory parameters did not reveal any evidence of liver disease. PMID: 32079429 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol Source Type: research
Authors: Zeng Q, Zhao L, Wang C, Gao M, Han X, Chen C, Tu C, Han P, Li J Abstract Background: A high prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) has been observed in patients with autoimmune liver disease (AILD); however, data on the clinical relationship between AILD and AITD remain scant. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between AILD and AITD.Methods: We performed a retrospective study using medical records from 324 patients with AILD, 113 of whom had concurrent AITD.Results: Patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) were more likely to develop AITD (45.8%), followed by autoimmune hepatitis-primary biliar...
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Scand J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 February 2020Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Yunhe Jiang, Shunan Liu, Siyu Shen, Haoran Guo, Honglan Huang, Wei WeiAbstractEnterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a member of the Picornavirus family and a causative agent of respiratory diseases in children. The incidence of EV-D68 infection has increased worldwide in recent years. Thus far, there are no approved antiviral agents or vaccines for EV-D68. Here, we show that methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), a common drug that disrupts lipid rafts, specifically inhibits EV-D68 infection without producing significant cytotoxicity at virucida...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Authors: Ambrogi V, Murris M, Iriart X, Lortholary O, Roques C, Cassaing S, Malavaud S PMID: 32081504 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Med Mal Infect Source Type: research
Authors: Valentí V, Cienfuegos JA, Becerril Mañas S, Frühbeck G Abstract Bariatric-metabolic surgery is the safest, most effective and long-lasting treatment for obesity and its associated co-morbidities, whether they be metabolic (type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) or cardiovascular (myocardial infarction, stroke). Due to the obesity pandemic, bariatric-metabolic surgery is the second most frequent intra-abdominal procedure and the gastroenterologist and the surgeon must be aware of the physiologic changes caused by the anatomic reconfiguration following surgery. ...
Source: Revista Espanola de Enfermedades Digestivas - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Rev Esp Enferm Dig Source Type: research
Authors: Martínez Lozano H, Conthe Alonso A, Bañares R Abstract INTRODUCTION: hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is a common cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. Since the generalization of vaccination, its incidence had markedly declined. Nevertheless, several HAV-outbreaks have been described in the last decade, mainly related to contaminated alimentary products. In recent years, a new pattern of acute HAV infection has been described with changes in the demographic profile of the infected population, which is more common in healthy young men. PATIENTS AND METHODS: a retrospective case series stud...
Source: Revista Espanola de Enfermedades Digestivas - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Rev Esp Enferm Dig Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 February 2020Source: Journal of Theoretical BiologyAuthor(s): Salihu S. Musa, Shi Zhao, Daozhou Gao, Qianying Lin, Gerardo Chowell, Daihai HeAbstractLassa fever, also known as Lassa hemorrhagic fever, is a virus that has generated recurrent outbreaks in West Africa. We use mathematical modelling to study the Lassa fever epidemics in Nigeria from 2016-19. Our model describes the interaction between human and rodent populations with the consideration of quarantine, isolation and hospitalization processes. Our model supports the phenomenon of forward bifurcation where the stability betwee...
Source: Journal of Theoretical Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: May 2020Source: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Volume 189Author(s): Maroua Ben Haddada, Elise Gerometta, Rachid Chawech, Jonathan Sorres, Anne Bialecki, Sabrina Pesnel, Jolanda Spadavecchia, Anne-Laure MorelAbstractHubertia ambavilla, an endemic plant originating from Reunion Island in the Indian Ocean, is traditionally used as an anti-inflammatory and in healing, both for internal and external use. Polyphenolic compounds from aqueous phase extractions can reduce metal salts into nanoparticles and stabilize them in one step. Although gold nanoparticles are well described in the literature as anti...
Source: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 February 2020Source: Preventive MedicineAuthor(s): Nasser Sharareh, Rachel Hess, Scott White, Angela Dunn, Phillip M. Singer, Jerry CochranAbstractAfter the 2014–2015 HIV outbreak in Scott County, Indiana, United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducted a nationwide analysis to identify vulnerable counties to an outbreak of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and prevent such an outbreak in the future. We developed a jurisdiction-level vulnerability assessment for HCV infections associated with injection drug use (IDU) in Utah.We us...
Source: Preventive Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Publication date: August 2020Source: Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications, Volume 54Author(s): Zhihui Ma, Shufan Wang, Xiaohua LiAbstractThe aim of this paper is to theoretically study the effect of the contacting distance (CTD) between the susceptible and infectious individuals in controlling infectious diseases. This paper formulates a generalized SEIR model incorporating the effect of the contacting distance (CTD). The dynamical behaviors of the proposed model are investigated and the controlling measures of the infectious diseases are developed. The results show that the contacting distance (CTD) between the sus...
Source: Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications - Category: Research Source Type: research
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