PERSPECTIVES Prostate Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells

Stem/progenitor cells play central roles in processes of organogenesis and tissue maintenance, whereas cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to drive tumor malignancy. Here, we review recent progress in the identification and analysis of normal prostate stem/progenitor cells as well as putative CSCs in both genetically engineered mouse models as well as in human tissue. We also discuss studies that have investigated the cell type of origin for prostate cancer. In addition, we provide a critical assessment of methodologies used in stem cell analyses and outline directions for future research.
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Prostate Cancer PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

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The objective of this study was to identify differentially expressed microRNAs in these cell lines, which may be responsible for the EMT phenotype. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering confirmed that microRNA expression profiles are distinctly different between the two cell lines, with 119 miRNAs significantly increased and 81 microRNAs significantly decreased in ARCaPM cells as compared to ARCaPE. Further analysis revealed that many of the differentially expressed microRNAs belong to only a few microRNA families/clusters. Unsurprisingly, microRNAs in these clusters are co-expressed due to common promoters, which are known...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Non-coding RNA profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 February 2020Source: Saudi Journal of Biological SciencesAuthor(s): Anmar M. NassirAbstractProstate cancer (PCa) has a variable biological potential. It constitutes the second most common cancer amongst men worldwide and the fifth most common cancer in Saudi Arabia. Identifying men at higher risk of developing PCa, differentiating indolent from aggressive disease and predicting the likelihood of progression will improve decision-making and selection for active surveillance protocols. Biomarkers have been utilized for PCa screening and predicting cancer behavior and response to treatmen...
Source: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
AbstractPurposeTargeted alpha therapy (TAT) is a promising treatment for micrometastatic and minimal residual cancer. We evaluated systemic α-radioimmunotherapy (α-RIT) of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) using the α-particle emitter211At-labeled to the anti-PSCA A11 minibody. A11 is specific for prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), a cell surface glycoprotein which is overexpressed in more than 90% of both localized prostate cancer and bone metastases.MethodsPC3-PSCA cells were implanted subcutaneously (s.c.) and intratibially (i.t) in nude mice. Efficacy of α-RIT (two fraction...
Source: EJNMMI Research - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
by Shubham Tripathi, Priyanka Chakraborty, Herbert Levine, Mohit Kumar Jolly Epithelial-mesenchymal heterogeneity implies that cells within the same tumor can exhibit different phenotypes—epithelial, mesenchymal, or one or more hybrid epithelial-mesenchymal phenotypes. This behavior has been reported across cancer types, bothin vitro andin vivo, and implicated in multiple processes associated with metastatic aggressiveness including immune evasion, collective dissemination of tumor cells, and emergence of cancer cell subpopulations with stem cell-like properties. However, the ability of a population of cancer cells ...
Source: PLoS Computational Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractProstate cancer is a candidate for immunotherapy because cancer cells express tissue-specific proteins that can be therapeutic targets. However, immune checkpoint inhibitors and active immunization have performed poorly in clinical trials. We developed a novel virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine composed of bovine papillomavirus L1 protein engineered to display surface docking sites. We decorated VLPs with peptides encoding T cell epitopes from two prostate cancer-associated tumor antigens, prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP-1 and PAP-2), and a neo-antigen, stimulator of prostatic ...
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Developmentally reprogrammed PCa cell models recapitulate features of clinically-advanced prostate tumors including downregulated Rb1/p53 and overexpression of Sox2 with Sox9. Sox9 is a marker of a transitional state that identifies PCa cells under the stress of therapeutic assault and facilitates progression to therapy resistance. Its expression may index the relative activity of the NF-κB pathway. PMID: 31919137 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
Authors: Yeh Y, Guo Q, Connelly Z, Cheng S, Yang S, Prieto-Dominguez N, Yu X Abstract Metastatic or locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa) is typically treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Initially, PCa responds to the treatment and regresses. However, PCa almost always develops resistance to androgen deprivation and progresses to castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPCa), a currently incurable form of PCa. Wnt/β-Catenin signaling is frequently activated in late stage PCa and contributes to the development of therapy resistance. Although activating mutations in the Wnt/β-Catenin pathway are ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
aul B. Fisher Despite some progress, treating advanced prostate cancer remains a major clinical challenge. Recent studies have shown that prostate cancer can originate from undifferentiated, rare, stem cell-like populations within the heterogeneous tumor mass, which play seminal roles in tumor formation, maintenance of tumor homeostasis and initiation of metastases. These cells possess enhanced propensity toward chemoresistance and may serve as a prognostic factor for prostate cancer recurrence. Despite extensive studies, selective targeted therapies against these stem cell-like populations are limited and more detaile...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) are implicated in cancer initiation and metastasis, sometimes by releasing exosomes that mediate cell communication by delivering microRNAs (miRNAs). This stud...
Source: Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Source: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology - Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Tags: Articles Source Type: research
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