Fight Aging! Newsletter, June 3rd 2019

In conclusion, there is solid evidence that obesity deregulates cellular mechanisms related to nutrient sensing. Altered Intercellular Communication It is accepted that aging impacts the organism at the cellular level, but also decreases the capacity of cells of an organism to interact. During aging, there is a decreased communication at the neuronal, neuroendocrine, and endocrine levels. Two of the most compelling examples of impaired communication are inflammaging and immunosenescence. The inflammaging phenotype results in elevated cytokines. These cytokines can accelerate and propagate the aging process. The literature persuasively suggests that the accumulation of pro-inflammatory cells, in the adipose tissue of obese patients, through cytokines and extracellular vesicles, accelerates the rate of aging both in the adipose tissue itself and the entire organism. Genomic Instability The impact of obesity on genomic instability has been analyzed. Results from animal studies and studies in humans, monitoring DNA damage in lymphocytes and sperm, were analyzed. However, heterogeneity in the study design, methodology, and confounding factors, preclude the conclusion that an association exists between obesity and DNA damage. Nevertheless, the causal relation between excess of body weight and genomic instability is supported by mechanistic studies. Oxidative damage seems as the one mechanism regarded as the most relevant. Loss Of Proteostasis ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

Related Links:

Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Irreversible T cell exhaustion limits the efficacy of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) blockade. We observed that dual CD40-TLR4 stimulation within a single tumor restored PD-1 sensitivity and that this regimen triggered a systemic tumor-specific CD8+ T cell response. This approach effectively treated established tumors in diverse syngeneic cancer models, and the systemic effect was dependent on the injected tumor, indicating that treated tumors were converted into necessary components of this therapy. Strikingly, this approach was associated with the absence of exhausted PD-1hi T cells in treated and distant tumors, while s...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Although modifications of gut microbiota with antibiotics (Abx) influence mouse skin and cardiac allografts, its role in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) remains unknown. We aimed to determine whether and how recipient Abx pretreatment may affect hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and OLT outcomes. Mice (C57BL/6) with or without Abx treatment (10 days) were transplanted with allogeneic (BALB/c) cold-stored (18 hours) livers, followed by liver and blood sampling (6 hours). We divided 264 human OLT recipients on the basis of duration of pre-OLT Abx treatment into control (Abx-free/Abx
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Organ transplantation is now a preferred treatment for end-stage organ failure. Among the challenges for ensuring excellent clinical outcomes for transplant recipients is good initial allograft function at the time of organ implantation. This is determined in part by the functional status of the donor and donor organ, functional status of the recipient, and conduct of the operative procedure. Despite optimization of these variables, organ transplantation is still often plagued by substantial initial dysfunction, variably referred to as slow or delayed graft function, or in the most extreme cases, primary graft nonfunction ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Skin and intestinal epithelial barriers play a pivotal role in protecting underlying tissues from harsh external environments. The protective role of these epithelia is, in part, dependent on a remarkable capacity to restore barrier function and tissue homeostasis after injury. In response to damage, epithelial wounds repair by a series of events that integrate epithelial responses with those of resident and infiltrating immune cells including neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. Compromise of this complex interplay predisposes to development of chronic nonhealing wounds, contributing to morbidity and mortality of many d...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Fibroblasts from patients with Tangier disease carrying ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) loss-of-function mutations are characterized by cardiolipin accumulation, a mitochondrial-specific phospholipid. Suppression of ABCA1 expression occurs in glomeruli from patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and in human podocytes exposed to DKD sera collected prior to the development of DKD. We demonstrated that siRNA ABCA1 knockdown in podocytes led to reduced oxygen consumption capabilities associated with alterations in the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes and with cardiolipin accumulation. Podocyte-specific deleti...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Immune cells are pivotal in the reaction to injury, whereupon, under ideal conditions, repair and resolution phases restore homeostasis following initial acute inflammation. Immune cell activation and reprogramming require transcriptional changes that can only be initiated if epigenetic alterations occur. Recently, accelerated deciphering of epigenetic mechanisms has extended knowledge of epigenetic regulation, including long-distance chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, posttranslational histone modifications, and involvement of small and long noncoding RNAs. Epigenetic changes have been linked to aspects of immune cell...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
pidemiologists focus on possible health effects of synthetic compounds known as 'forever chemicals' More at https://www.nsf.gov/discoveries/disc_summ.jsp?cntn_id=298915&WT.mc_id=USNSF_1 This is a Research News item.
Source: NSF Discoveries - Category: Science Source Type: research
[The Conversation Africa] Despite the availability of vaccines for influenza - or flu - the virus continues to kill people across the world. According to the World Health Organisation, flu epidemics result in 3 million to 5 million cases of severe illness and about 290 000 to 650 000 deaths each year.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
Active surveillance (AS) has been widely accepted as a first-line management approach in men with low-risk prostate cancer. While AS provides an avenue to reduce risk of overtreatment without compromising oncological safety, there remains a lack of consensus on the optimal approach to monitoring. An ideal surveillance strategy would be one that minimizes invasive testing such as prostate biopsy without conceding adverse oncologic outcomes. Thus, several studies have sought to identify men at higher risk of reclassification so as to more carefully select when biopsy is truly necessary.
Source: Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Source Type: research
More News: Allergy & Immunology | Alzheimer's | Amyloidosis | Biochemistry | Biology | Biomedical Science | Brain | Brain Cancers | Cancer | Cancer & Oncology | Cancer Vaccines | Cardiology | Cardiovascular | Cataract Removal | Cataracts | Cervical Cancer | Chemistry | Chemotherapy | Cholesterol | Clinical Trials | Cold Sores | Dementia | Diabetes | Diabetes Type 1 | Diabetic Ulcers | Diets | Eating Disorders & Weight Management | Endocrinology | Environmental Health | Epidemiology | Epithelial Cancer | Gastroschisis Repair | Genetics | Geriatrics | Health Management | Heart | Heart Failure | Heart Transplant | Herpes | Infectious Diseases | Influenza | Influenza Vaccine | Insulin | Ischemic Stroke | Japan Health | Laboratory Medicine | Learning | Lessons | Liver | Liver Transplant | Mitochondria | Mitochondrial Disease | Molecular Biology | Nanotechnology | Neurology | Neuroscience | Nutrition | Nuts | Obesity | Orthopaedics | Parkinson's Disease | Pathology | Perfusion | Pressure Sores | Research | Respiratory Medicine | Science | Skin | Skin Graft | Smokers | Sports Medicine | Statistics | Stem Cell Therapy | Stem Cells | Stroke | Study | Toxicology | Training | Transplant Surgery | Transplants | Universities & Medical Training | Urology & Nephrology | Vaccines | Veterinary Vaccinations | Weight Loss | Women