Pros and Cons of Screening Tools for Assessing Dementia

Working with older adults as a speech-language pathologist for a rehab company, I often assess patients on their cognitive function. I will deal more in-depth on how and why determining cognitive function helps guide my treatment strategies in an upcoming post. For this first article, however, I wanted to discuss the first steps. The first step I take in determining a person’s cognitive status involves using a standardized evaluation. I like three tests: the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and Saint Louis University Mental Status (SLUMS) exam. Quick, easy to use, and readily available online for free, each of these screens provides different psychometric properties, organization, and administration. In other words, each one offers its own set of pros and cons. These screening tools aren’t designed to diagnose cognitive functioning, but SLPs can use them to determine if a person’s cognitive function warrants further testing. In the next article for this two-part series, I’ll discuss why it’s important to gather information regarding possible dementia and how to use this information. Here are the advantages and disadvantages to consider for each screening tool: The MMSE takes about 10 minutes to administer. You can find versions translated and validated for many languages, including Persian, Greek, Italian, Chinese, Arabic, and Spanish. This screen assesses several areas—orientation, immediate memo...
Source: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) Press Releases - Category: Speech-Language Pathology Authors: Tags: Academia & Research Health Care Private Practice Slider Speech-Language Pathology dementia Source Type: blogs

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We read the ESPEN guideline on clinical nutrition in neurology by Burgos et  al. with great interest [1]. This guideline offers 88 recommendations for use in clinical practice for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, stroke and multiple sclerosis. In this guideline, the Clinical Question number 17 is as ‘‘When and how should patients with Parkinson's dis ease be screened for dysphagia?’’. As an answer to this question, in Recommendation number 24 they recommended to screen dysphagia in all patients with Parkinson's disease with a Hoehn&Yahr ‘‘stage above II’...
Source: Clinical Nutrition - Category: Nutrition Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
Abstract Microglia are resident immune cells that play multiple roles in central nervous system (CNS) development and disease. Although the classical concept of microglia/macrophage activation is based on a biphasic beneficial-versus-deleterious polarization, growing evidence now suggests a much more heterogenous profile of microglial activation that underlie their complex roles in the CNS. To date, the majority of data are focused on microglia in gray matter. However, demyelination is a prominent pathologic finding in a wide range of diseases including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and vascular cogniti...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research
Abstract Until recently, it was thought that there were no lymphatic vessels in the central nervous system (CNS). Therefore, all metabolic processes were assumed to take place only in the circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and through the blood-brain barrier's (BBB), which regulate ion transport and ensure the functioning of the CNS. However, recent findings yield a new perspective: There is an exchange of CSF with interstitial fluid (ISF), which is drained to the paravenous space and reaches lymphatic nodes at the end. This circulation is known as the glymphatic system. The glymphatic system is an exten...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research
Abstract Chronic neuroinflammation is a common feature of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in various neurodegenerative age-associated disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and dementia. In particular, persistent low-grade inflammation may disrupt the brain endothelial barrier and cause a significant increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines and immune cells into the cerebral tissue that, in turn, leads to microglia dysfunction and lose of neuroprotective properties. Nowadays, growing evidence highlights a strong association between persistent peripheral inflammation, as w...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
ConclusionALSP will cause rapidly progressing dementia with/without movement disorders in young adults. The definite diagnosis should be based on a comprehensive analysis of clinical manifestations, and neuroimaging, histology, and genetic results. Early biopsy will add to the accuracy of the diagnosis.
Source: Neurological Sciences - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOlder adults currently represent the fastest growing demographic of cannabis users, yet few studies have investigated the effects of cannabis use on cognitive functioning in aging. We conducted a systematic review of the recent literature examining cognitive outcomes associated with cannabis use in older adults, with and without neurocognitive disorders, to clarify the potential neuroprotective benefits or risks of cognitive decline in this population.Recent FindingsWe identified 26 studies examining cognitive outcomes associated with medical and recreational use of cannabis in healthy aging, demen...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - Category: Addiction Source Type: research
Abstract Although the extra cellular matrix (ECM) comprises a major proportion of the CNS parenchyma, new roles for the ECM in regeneration and repair responses to CNS injury have only recently been appreciated. The ECM undergoes extensive remodeling following injury to the developing or mature CNS in disorders that -include perinatal hypoxic-ischemic cerebral injury, multiple sclerosis and age-related vascular dementia. Here we focus on recently described mechanisms involving hyaluronan (HA), which negatively impact myelin repair after cerebral white matter injury. Injury induced depolymerization of hyaluronan (H...
Source: Neurochemical Research - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Fall prevention requires a multifaceted approach that should include individual risk assessment and intervention strategies. Exercise interventions may mitigate most risk factors for falls (eg, balance impairment, gait impairment, and muscle weakness). Numerous systematic reviews or meta-analyses have assessed the effectiveness of exercise interventions among people with various types of neurological disorders; however, the evidence obtained has not been synthesized into an overview. Therefore, the present systematic review assessed systematic reviews of exercise intervention for fall prevention among people with neurologi...
Source: American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Literature Review Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 5 September 2019Source: Journal of Clinical NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Abdorreza Naser Moghadasi, Mohammad Ali SahraianAbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) can create different kinds of symptoms by involving different fields of the central nervous system. Cognitive impairment (CI) is one of the symptoms that can be caused by the onset of the disease and provide a change in the patient’s quality of life. Considering the course of the disease, CI usually worsens increasingly, and there is usually a severe CI in patients with end stage of MS. However, progressing CI can be so fast and severe in...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Preoperative and postoperative mental health status (MHS) of total joint arthroplasty patients can affect immediate and long-term outcomes following surgery. Alterations in MHS can be acute or chronic. The most common etiologies include acute changes due to (1) delirium or stroke, (2) movement disorders (Alzheimer dementia, Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy), and (3) mood/behavior disorders (major depressive disorder, anxiety, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia). Across etiologies, alterations in MHS are associated with worse clinical/patient-reported outcomes and greater total cost of care. Prevention via pharm...
Source: Techniques in Orthopaedics - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Symposium Source Type: research
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