Medical News Today: What are the side effects and risks of Ritalin?

Ritalin (methylphenidate) is a stimulant medication for the treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy. Ritalin can cause side effects and has the potential for misuse and addiction. Researchers are investigating the long-term safety and effectiveness of this drug in children and adolescents. Learn more here.
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: ADHD / ADD Source Type: news

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Exp Neurol. 2021 May 15;342:113754. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2021.113754. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe alkaloid ephedrine derived from Ephedra vulgaris is at the origin of psychostimulant-drugs as amphetamine. These drugs have been principally utilized for medical treatments in the past, while their utilization has been largely reduced from the 1970s when the high risk of addiction and abuse has been recognized. The first reported treatments were as anti-asthmatics and to contrast narcolepsy until their recreational stimulant and anorexic effects were reported. Benzedrine and Pervitin use were of great importance duri...
Source: Experimental Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Modafinil is used for the treatment of narcolepsy and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and as add-on therapy for psychiatric diseases such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, depression, cocaine addiction. The exact mechanism of action is unknown. Modafinil may be helpful for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation. The addition of modafinil to antidepressant treatment may provide positive effects on sexual dysfunction. However, side effects such as hypersexuality and unwanted orgasm have been reported with modafinil treatment. In this article, a patient who had developed sp...
Source: Clinical Neuropharmacology - Category: Neurology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research
Abstract Although it has been initially synthesized for therapeutic purposes and currently FDA-approved and prescribed for obesity, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, narcolepsy and depression, methamphetamine became a recreational drug that is nowadays massively manufactured illegally. Because it is a powerful and extremely addictive psychotropic agent, its abuse has turned out to become a major health problem worldwide. Importantly, the numerous effects triggered by this drug induce neurotoxicity in the brain ultimately leading to serious neurological impairments, tissue damage and neuropsychological dist...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research
The idea that a pill can supersize human intelligence is decidedly science fiction. But plenty of real-world researchers and drug-makers are working to develop nootropics: pills, supplements and other substances designed to improve various aspects of cognition. A rough translation for the word “nootropic” comes from the Greek for “to bend or shape the mind.” And already, there are dozens of over-the-counter (OTC) products—many of which are sold widely online or in stores—that claim to boost creativity, memory, decision-making or other high-level brain functions. Some of the most popular ...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Drugs Source Type: news
Abstract The psychostimulant amphetamine can be prescribed to ameliorate the symptoms of narcolepsy, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and to facilitate weight loss. This stimulant can also have negative effects including toxicity and addiction risk. The impact of amphetamine on gene networks is partially understood and this study addresses this gap in consideration of the physical activity. The striata of mice exposed to either amphetamine or saline treatment were compared in a mouse line selected for home cage physical overactivity, a phenotype that can be mitigated with amphetamine, and in a contemporary...
Source: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights - Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Tags: Bioinform Biol Insights Source Type: research
Nearly 80 years since their first therapeutic use, stimulants such as methylphenidate and amphetamines remain amongst the most widely relied upon class of medications, with an estimated 90 million annual prescriptions in the USA alone (Swanson and Volkow, 2009; AMA, 1937; IMS Health, 2014). A range of new therapeutic applications for stimulants are being actively investigated although, currently, they are primarily prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and occasionally for narcolepsy and treatment-resistant depression (Adler, 2008; AAP, 2011; Alpert and Fava, 2014; Challman and Lipsky, 2000).
Source: Drug and Alcohol Dependence - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Full length article Source Type: research
Call it a case of unintended consequences. Twenty years ago, the prescription medication Adderall debuted as a treatment for narcolepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A stimulant, with amphetamine as its active ingredient, Adderall helped sufferers of narcolepsy stay awake, but it also increased mental focus and endurance for those diagnosed with ADHD. Because of its effectiveness and relatively mild side effects, Adderall quickly became a common treatment for ADHD. But as its popularity increased, use of Adderall also began spreading beyond the people it was intended for. Today, students without ADH...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Addiction ADHD and ADD Children and Teens College Habits Medications Psychology Recovery Stimulants Students Success & Achievement Adderall Amphetamine attention Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder cognitive enhancement Source Type: blogs
Conclusion Healthcare providers in general, and specifically those in the mental health and substance abuse fields, should keep in mind that nootropic use is an under recognized and evolving problem. Nootropic use should be considered in cases where there are sudden or unexplained exacerbations of psychiatric symptoms in patients who have been stable and medication adherent. It is also important to remember that most nootropics are not detected on standard drug toxicology screening tests. We have very little clinical information on how nootropics may interact with psychotropics (or other medications) and potentially cause ...
Source: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Case Series and Literature Review Current Issue Mental Disorders Psychiatry Psychopharmacology Substance Use Disorders Ampakines Armodafinil brain enhancer Cerebrolysin Citicoline cognitive enhancer homeopathic medicine natural r Source Type: research
In this study, about 5% of patients given any dosage of Vyvanse had to discontinue its use because of adverse effects.  3/196 patients initially randomized to Vyvanse had serious adverse effects, and one patient died, apparently of an amphetamine overdose.  Oddly, the article declared that the one death, due to methamphetamine overdose, was thought by a study investigator not to be related to treatment with another amphetamine, lisdexamfetamine.  That makes little sense, given that in a randomized controlled trial, the presumption is that differences in groups given different treatments were caused by these ...
Source: Health Care Renewal - Category: Health Management Tags: clinical trials conflicts of interest deception evidence-based medicine FDA marketing Shire stealth marketing Source Type: blogs
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that exerts important effects on locomotor activity, motivation and reward, and cognition. The dopamine transporter (DAT) is expressed on the plasma membrane of dopamine synthesizing neurons, and is responsible for clearing dopamine released into the extra-cellular space, thereby regulating neurotransmission. The dopamine transporter plays a significant role in neurotoxicity and human diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, drug abuse (especially cocaine addiction), Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD), and a number of other CNS disorders. Therefore, t...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
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