West Nile virus infection in individuals with pre-existing Usutu virus immunity, northern Italy, 2018.

West Nile virus infection in individuals with pre-existing Usutu virus immunity, northern Italy, 2018. Euro Surveill. 2019 May;24(21): Authors: Sinigaglia A, Pacenti M, Martello T, Pagni S, Franchin E, Barzon L Abstract In 2018, there was a large West Nile virus (WNV) outbreak in northern Italy. We observed five atypical cases of WNV infection that were characterised by the presence of WNV RNA and WNV IgG at the time of diagnosis, but no IgM response during follow-up. Neutralisation assays demonstrated pre-existing Usutu virus immunity in all patients. Besides challenging diagnosis, the immunological crosstalk between the two viruses warrants further investigation on possible cross-protection or infection enhancement effects. PMID: 31138361 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Euro Surveill - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

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ignuzzi The Usutu virus (USUV) is a flavivirus that is drawing increasing attention because of its potential for emergence. First isolated in Africa, it was introduced into Europe where it caused significant outbreaks in birds, such as in Austria in 2001. Since then, its geographical distribution has rapidly expanded, with increased circulation, especially in the last few years. Similar to West Nile virus (WNV), the USUV enzootic transmission cycle involves Culex mosquitoes as vectors, and birds as amplifying reservoir hosts, with humans and other mammals likely being dead-end hosts. A similarity in the ecology of thes...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Source: European Union, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Published: 7/2019. This 18-page report covers the events and threats detected by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) epidemic intelligence (EI) team in 2018 and the actions taken related to these findings. In 2018, 377 events were monitored and discussed at the daily round table meetings. Of the 377 events, 71 led to the opening and monitoring of a new threat. Threats of particular interest in 2018 included dengue, West Nile virus infection, monkeypox, and the Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. (PDF)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 12 June 2019Source: Molecular and Cellular ProbesAuthor(s): Serafeim C. Chaintoutis, Elpida Papadopoulou, Angeliki Melidou, Anna Papa, Chrysostomos I. DovasAbstractLineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV) strains have been implicated in severe encephalitis outbreaks in humans and equines residing in Europe. WNV molecular characterization is important for the development of diagnostic assays, as well as for obtaining molecular information, which is necessary for epidemiological investigations of virus transmission in areas at risk. For whole genome sequencing of lineage 2 WNV strains, directly from...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Probes - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: May 2019Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Volume 26, Issue 3Author(s): Emmanuel A. BurdmannThe genus Flavivirus comprises approximately 73 viruses, which share several common aspects, such as dimension, structure, nucleic acid properties, and shape in electronic microscopy. Global incidence of flavivirus infection increased dramatically over the last decades, causing large outbreaks in several areas of the world. These viruses are expanding from endemic tropical and subtropical areas to previously nonendemic areas, affecting and causing diseases in millions of individuals worldwide and posing a ...
Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
The mosquito-borne West Nile virus (WNV) is a highly neurovirulent Flavivirus currently representing an emergent zoonotic concern. WNV cycles in nature between mosquito vectors and birds that act as amplifier hosts and play an essential role in virus ecology, being a threat to many species. Availability of an efficient avian vaccine would benefit certain avian populations, both birds grown for hunting and restocking activities, as well as endangered species in captive breeding projects, wildlife reservations and recreation installations, and would be useful to prevent and contain outbreaks. Avian vaccination would be also ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract Early warning systems to predict infectious disease outbreaks have been identified as a key adaptive response to climate change. Warming, climate variability and extreme weather events associated with climate change are expected to drive an increase in frequency and intensity of mosquito-borne disease (MBD) outbreaks globally. In Canada, this will mean an increased risk of endemic and emerging MBD outbreaks such as West Nile virus and other MBDs. The availability of timely information on the risk of impending MBD outbreaks has important public health implications, by allowing implementation of mosquito co...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research
Abstract Recently, protocols for amplicon based whole genome sequencing using Nanopore technology have been described for Ebola virus, Zika virus, yellow fever virus and West Nile virus. However, there is some debate regarding reliability of sequencing using this technology, which is important for applications beyond diagnosis such as linking lineages to outbreaks, tracking transmission pathways and pockets of circulation, or mapping specific markers. To our knowledge, no in depth analyses of the required read coverage to compensate for the error profile in Nanopore sequencing have been described. Here, we describ...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
In this study, we exposed apically well-differentiated human NECs cultured at the ALI to the related flaviviruses ZIKV, JEV, WNV, and Usutu virus (USUV). We selected these viruses due to the recent increasing evidences of potential threat to humans (Cadar et al., 2017; Simonin et al., 2018). We show that NECs are particularly susceptible to JEV and WNV infection and to other flaviviruses included in this study. Infection with each virus led to shedding of infectious virus particles through the apical and basolateral surfaces and triggered host mechanisms at the level of inflammatory and antiviral mediators. Given...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated ATA as a potential antiviral drug against ZIKV replication. The antiviral activity of ATA against ZIKV replication in vitro showed median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 13.87 ± 1.09 μM and 33.33 ± 1.13 μM in Vero and A549 cells, respectively; without showing any cytotoxic effect in both cell lines (median cytotoxic concentration (CC50)> 1,000 μM). Moreover, ATA protected both cell types from ZIKV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) and apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, pre-treatment of Vero cells with ATA for up to 72 h also resulted...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Adriano Queiroz1, Isabella Fernanda Dantas Pinto2, Maricélia Lima3, Marta Giovanetti1,4, Jaqueline Goes de Jesus1, Joilson Xavier1, Fernanda Khouri Barreto5, Gisele André Baptista Canuto6, Helineide Ramos do Amaral7, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis4, Denise Lima Mascarenhas8, Melissa Barreto Falcão8, Normeide Pedreira Santos8, Vasco Ariston de Carvalho Azevedo9, Marcos Yukio Yoshinaga2*, Sayuri Miyamoto2 and Luiz Carlos Junior Alcantara1,4,10* 1Laboratório de Patologia Experimental, Instituto Gonçalo Moniz, Salvador, Brazil 2Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Quími...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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