Pharmacological Enhancement of Stroke Recovery

AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to discuss the recent literature relating to drugs for stroke recovery and to identify some of the challenges in conducting translational research for stroke recovery.Recent FindingsAdvances in our understanding of neural repair mechanisms in pre-clinical stroke models have provided insights into potential targets for drugs that enhance the repair/recovery process. Few drugs that act on serotonergic and dopaminergic systems have been tested in humans with mixed results. The FOCUS trial, a phase III study of early administration of fluoxetine for stroke recovery, failed to replicate the promising results of the FLAME trial, but outcome measures differed between the two trials. Another drug that has recently been shown to have potential to promote motor recovery after stroke is maraviroc, an inhibitor of C-C chemokine receptor 5 that is involved in learning and memory.SummaryVarious drugs, including modulators of neurotransmitters, axonal growth inhibitor blockers, and growth factors, have been examined in preclinical and clinical studies for their ability to promote neural repair, particularly in the motor system. Neuroplasticity, broadly defined as the capacity of the brain to undergo biochemical, structural, or functional changes, is heightened early after stroke when behavioral improvements are observed. Further studies are needed to determine which of these neuroplastic processes are causal to recovery and therefore appropriate tar...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Upper extremity and neck access is increasingly being used for complex endovascular aortic repairs. We sought to compare perioperative stroke and other complications of (1) arm/neck with femoral/iliac access (AN) vs femoral/iliac access alone (FI), (2) right- vs left-sided AN, and (3) arm vs neck access sites.
Source: Journal of Vascular Surgery - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Abstract from the 2019 Western Vascular Society Annual Meeting Source Type: research
I read with interest the article by Kim and colleagues1 about axillary artery (AA) cannulation in open aortic arch repair. Their propensity-matched, retrospective analysis included 116 patients in each cohort of AA and non-AA cannulation. The primary outcome from the study was early postoperative embolic stroke, whereas the secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality and major operative complications. They concluded a lower rate of embolic stroke in axillary cohort (2.6% vs 8.5%, P  = .46), as well as lower in-hospital and 30-day mortality rates (P 
Source: The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
This study provides proof-of-principle that injectable biomaterials may be a translationally relevant approach for treating ICH.
Source: Translational Stroke Research - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
In conclusion, our data show how oncogenic and tumor-suppressive drivers of cellular senescence act to regulate surveillance processes that can be circumvented to enable SnCs to elude immune recognition but can be reversed by cell surface-targeted interventions to purge the SnCs that persist in vitro and in patients. Since eliminating SnCs can prevent tumor progression, delay the onset of degenerative diseases, and restore fitness; since NKG2D-Ls are not widely expressed in healthy human tissues and NKG2D-L shedding is an evasion mechanism also employed by tumor cells; and since increasing numbers of B cells express NKG2D ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
We examined 9293 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements of total cholesterol, free- and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, and particle concentration. Fourteen subclasses of decreasing size and their lipid constituents were analysed: six subclasses were very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), one intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), three low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and four subclasses were high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Remnant lipoproteins were VLDL and IDL combined. Mean nonfasting cholesterol concentration was 72...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 9 August 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic SurgeryAuthor(s): Elizabeth L. Norton, Xiaoting Wu, Linda Farhat, Karen M. Kim, Himanshu J. Patel, G Michael Deeb, Bo YangAbstractBackgroundIt is controversial if extension of aortic dissection into arch branches should be an indication for replacement of the arch and its branches in acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD).MethodsFrom 2008-April 2018, 399 patients underwent open repair for an ATAAD, 190 patients had known innominate and/or left common carotid artery dissection without malperfusion syndrome, including: no arch procedure (n=1)/hemi...
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
We examined 9293 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements of total cholesterol, free- and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, and particle concentration. Fourteen subclasses of decreasing size and their lipid constituents were analysed: six subclasses were very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), one intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), three low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and four subclasses were high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Remnant lipoproteins were VLDL and IDL combined. Mean nonfasting cholesterol concentration was 72...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs
It’s only been seven years since scientists first learned how to precisely and reliably splice the human genome using a tool called CRISPR, making it possible to think about snipping out disease-causing mutations and actually cure, once and for all, genetic diseases ranging from sickle cell anemia to certain types of cancer and even blindness. Doctors are plunging ahead in search of ways to use the relatively new technology to start treating patients. In China last November, scientist Jiankui He stunned—and dismayed—the genetic community when he announced he had already used CRISPR, which many believe sti...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized crispr Genetics Source Type: news
Conclusions: Hybrid procedures on the aortic arch that comprise surgical and endovascular interventions has become an attractive and safe therapeutic option with acceptable mortality and morbidity rate. They may be considered as a method of choice in treatment of the elderly and high-risk patients. PMID: 31372267 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Thoracic Disease - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Thorac Dis Source Type: research
Conclusions: Treatment of descending aortic diseases by using stent graft implantation has become the method of choice, decreasing the risk of open surgery, especially in patients with severe clinical state and comorbidities. However, effectiveness and safety may be achieved by experience team. PMID: 31372261 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Thoracic Disease - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Thorac Dis Source Type: research
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