Distinguishing between predictive and incentive value of uncertain gambling-like cues in a Pavlovian autoshaping task.

Distinguishing between predictive and incentive value of uncertain gambling-like cues in a Pavlovian autoshaping task. Behav Brain Res. 2019 May 23;:111971 Authors: Robinson MJF, Clibanoff C, Freeland CM, Knes AS, Cote JR, Russell TI Abstract The flashing lights and celebratory sounds that dominate slot-machine gambling are believed to promote engagement and motivation to keep playing. However, these cues are often presented in the absence of reward, and previous research suggests that this reward uncertainty, which degrades their predictive value, also increases their incentive value. Here, we used autoshaping to tease apart the impact of reward uncertainty on the predictive and incentive value of a conditioned stimulus (CS) using serial cues. Each CS trial began with the presentation of a predictive CS1, followed by a CS2, holding primarily incentive value, because of its proximity to sucrose reward delivery, under Certain (100%-1) or Uncertain (50%-1-2-3) reward conditions. Subsequently, we tested the impact of amphetamine and nicotine on cue attraction, and the ability of these cues to either serve as a conditioned reinforcer, or promote motivation for sucrose during a progressive ratio task. Finally, we measured anxiety behavior, and examined its interaction with each cue and uncertainty. Our results suggest that reward uncertainty increases attraction to the incentive CS2 and its ability to trigger motivation and reward-seeking. However, although t...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

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ConclusionIn our study, the Met-allele was associated with higher stress levels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study investigating this area. The findings from this study should trigger more investigators to focus on the impact of stress, due to the potential effects of these genes, on medical students.
Source: Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research
In an attempt to keep the main University of Michigan thread on topic and avoid the spamming that we saw last week, I have made this thread for all of our neuroticism and anxiety to be redirected to. I will lock this thread Monday evening and I will unlock it the following Sunday. @EmbryonalCarcinoma @Doctors' Docta @pagingdocopp @Jappa @peanutbuttah @premedpower8484848... Round 14 - 2019-2020 #UMichMedMonday thread
Source: Student Doctor Network - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Pre-Medical - MD Source Type: forums
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2019Source: Journal of Psychiatric ResearchAuthor(s): Patrick J.F. Clarke, Brodie F. Sprlyan, Colette R. Hirsch, Frances Meeten, Lies NotebaertAbstractWhile considerable experimental research has examined the impact of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on a range of cognitive processes associated with emotional pathology, the impact of tDCS on worry has been comparatively neglected. Given that anxiety pathology is characterised by motivated engagement in worry, and that frontal tDCS has the capacity to enhance goal-oriented cognition, it is important to examine whe...
Source: Journal of Psychiatric Research - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
ConclusionsWhen considered within the context of previous research, the experimental effects and therapeutic potential of CBM-I for high AS appear to be minimal. However, methodological questions need to be resolved before such a conclusion can be considered definitive.
Source: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
A simple sign of higher total brain volume, more brain surface area and fewer lesions in the brain's white matter. → Support PsyBlog for just $4 per month. Enables access to articles marked (M) and removes ads. → Explore PsyBlog's ebooks, all written by Dr Jeremy Dean: Accept Yourself: How to feel a profound sense of warmth and self-compassion The Anxiety Plan: 42 Strategies For Worry, Phobias, OCD and Panic Spark: 17 Steps That Will Boost Your Motivation For Anything Activate: How To Find Joy Again By Changing What You Do
Source: PsyBlog | Psychology Blog - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Brain Health subscribers-only Source Type: blogs
Many overweight people are deficient in this essential nutrients. → Support PsyBlog for just $4 per month. Enables access to articles marked (M) and removes ads. → Explore PsyBlog's ebooks, all written by Dr Jeremy Dean: Accept Yourself: How to feel a profound sense of warmth and self-compassion The Anxiety Plan: 42 Strategies For Worry, Phobias, OCD and Panic Spark: 17 Steps That Will Boost Your Motivation For Anything Activate: How To Find Joy Again By Changing What You Do
Source: PsyBlog | Psychology Blog - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Weight Loss Source Type: blogs
These diets can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and the risk of diabetes as well as keeping you in shape. → Support PsyBlog for just $4 per month. Enables access to articles marked (M) and removes ads. → Explore PsyBlog's ebooks, all written by Dr Jeremy Dean: Accept Yourself: How to feel a profound sense of warmth and self-compassion The Anxiety Plan: 42 Strategies For Worry, Phobias, OCD and Panic Spark: 17 Steps That Will Boost Your Motivation For Anything Activate: How To Find Joy Again By Changing What You Do
Source: PsyBlog | Psychology Blog - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Heart Disease Source Type: blogs
Neurological insights into how the brain processes stress, and how it can develop into depression, have led to new interventionsIt ’s a damp, midweek afternoon. Even so, Cardiff’s walk-in stress management course has pulled in more than 50 people. There are teenagers, white-haired older people with walking aids, people from Caucasian, Asian and Middle Eastern backgrounds. There is at least one pair who look like a parent an d child – I’m unsure who is there to support whom.The course instructor makes it clear that she is not going to ask people to speak out about their own stress levels in this firs...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Neuroscience Depression Anxiety Mental health Society Psychology Cities Source Type: news
Authors: Horta-Baas G, Peláez-Ballestas I, Queipo G, Montero Hernández U, Romero-Figueroa MDS Abstract OBJECTIVES: Alexithymia is a personality trait related to the quality of life of women with fibromyalgia (FM). It is still unknown whether alexithymia is associated with the clinical manifestations of FM. The present study describes the relationship between alexithymia and the domains included in the core set recommended by the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) for FM evaluation. METHODS: One hundred two women with FM were enrolled in the cross-sectional study. The domains evaluated were...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology - Category: Rheumatology Tags: Clin Exp Rheumatol Source Type: research
Publication date: 12 October 2019Source: New Scientist, Volume 244, Issue 3251Author(s): Graham LawtonThe UK media reports widespread eco-anxiety in kids. If we accept it is a mental health condition, climate denialists will have won, writes Graham Lawton
Source: New Scientist - Category: Science Source Type: research
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