Opioid–galanin receptor heteromers differentiate the dopaminergic effects of morphine and methadone

As the opioid addiction crisis reaches epidemic levels, the identification of opioid analgesics that lack abuse potential may provide a path to safer treatment of chronic pain. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that galanin affects physical dependence and rewarding actions associated with morphine. In the brain and periphery, galanin and opioids signal through their respective GPCRs, GalR1–3 and the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). In this issue of the JCI, Cai and collaborators reveal that heteromers between GalR1 and MOR in the rat ventral tegmental area attenuate the potency of methadone, but not other opioids, in stimulating the dopamine release that produces euphoria. These studies help us understand why some synthetic opioids, such as methadone, do not trigger the release of dopamine in the mesolimbic system but still possess strong analgesic properties.
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research

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Conclusion: Safer prescribing policies may take multiple years to fully implement and need to be employed across the jurisdiction to minimize doctor-shopping and adverse effects on patients with chronic pain. Approaching pain management through the social-ecological model can address potential root causes of addiction and establish a framework for doctors to provide compassionate care, community leadership, and advocacy for these patients. PMID: 31790125 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: J Am Osteopath Assoc Source Type: research
Conclusion: This pilot study demonstrates that increasing residency education in managing chronic pain and opioid use disorder is feasible, and no longer needs to be postponed due to lack of time or faculty expertise. PMID: 31757179 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Substance Use and Misuse - Category: Addiction Tags: Subst Use Misuse Source Type: research
Cliffside Malibu does not condone the use of the term “addict” when referring to people suffering from the disorder of addiction. However, we do understand that others still may use the term in order to find information. Many people may find themselves asking the question, “am I an opioid addict?” if they feel as if their use has spiraled out of control. There are many ways to find out if you may have become addicted to opioids, as well as ways to get help and find treatment. How Opioid Addiction Begins Nearly 80% of heroin users started with prescription opioids, which puts prescription drugs and ...
Source: Cliffside Malibu - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Addiction Addiction to Pharmaceuticals addiction treatment opioid opioid crisis opioids pharmaceutical addiction pharmaceutical drug abuse treatment Source Type: blogs
DiscussionThe social construction of the opioid epidemic polarizes individuals as good or bad with little attention paid to underlying institutional interests both in the creation of the problem or in the solutions that are proposed. We show that as concerns about harms from opioids become more pronounced, the narrative shifts to home in on illicit street-use with a corresponding uptake of stigmatizing references to “addicts”. Concurrently, most references to the pharmaceutical industry disappear from view. This framing of the problem defines the kinds of solutions that then seem natural. For example, increased...
Source: Social Science and Medicine - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Chronic pain serves as an important factor in the persistence of drug use in more than one-third of PWID in this sample. The high prevalence of chronic pain with drug use for pain suggests that proper pain management is likely to be an essential component of preventing or regressing injection drug use in PWID, with data needed on effective interventions for this population. PMID: 31704433 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Addictive Behaviors - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Addict Behav Source Type: research
Abstract The opioid epidemic is a significant public health concern linked to chronic pain. Despite efforts to change opioid prescribing practices for chronic pain, opioid-involved overdoses remain at an all-time high. Research focused on identifying individual difference factors for problematic opioid misuse in the context of chronic pain have identified certain psychological variables that may confer heightened risk for opioid-related problems. Anxiety sensitivity, or fear of anxiety-related physical sensations, has been linked to opioid-related problems among adults with chronic pain. Yet, it is possible that t...
Source: Addictive Behaviors - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Addict Behav Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to examine the impact of the opioid epidemic in adolescents and young adults and recent findings regarding the treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD) in pediatric medical settings.Recent FindingsExisting guidelines for the treatment of chronic pain in adults are not intended to be applied to adolescents, who arguably may need different interventions that balance the need to mitigate the long-term impact of chronic pain with the need to limit opioid misuse. Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment is an important upstream strategy to prevent opioid misus...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - Category: Addiction Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 September 2019Source: EXPLOREAuthor(s): Arya. Nielsen, L.Susan. WielandAbstractCochrane is an international non-profit organization established in 1993 to produce and disseminate high quality and unbiased systematic reviews of evidence on health care interventions. At the forefront of systematic review methodology, Cochrane is generally accepted to be among the most carefully prepared and rigorous sources of systematic review evidence. There are numerous Cochrane reviews on nonpharmacologic interventions for pain and multiple Cochrane reviews evaluating acupuncture therapy in pain cond...
Source: EXPLORE: The Journal of Science and Healing - Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research
Depending on what you read, kratom is a dangerous, addictive drug with no medical utility and severe side effects, including overdose and death, or it is an accessible pathway out of undertreated chronic pain and opiate withdrawal. How can the US Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), medical professionals, and millions of regular kratom users have such divergent views of the same plant? What is kratom? Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a tropical tree from the coffee family native to Southeast Asia, with properties that range from stimulant-like, energizing and uplifting, to opiate-like, causing drowsiness and euphoria. Kratom has d...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Addiction Pain Management Vitamins and supplements Source Type: blogs
CONCLUSIONS: A high level of willingness to wear an overdose detection device was observed in this setting and a range of factors associated with overdose were positively associated with willingness. Since some factors, such as homelessness may be a barrier, further research is needed to investigate explanations for unwillingness and to evaluate real world acceptability of a wearable overdose detection devices as this technology becomes available. PMID: 31269963 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Addiction Science and Clinical Practice - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Addict Sci Clin Pract Source Type: research
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