Effect of disaccharide-polyol systems on the thermal stability of freeze-dried Mycobacterium bovis

Publication date: Available online 25 May 2019Source: International Journal of PharmaceuticsAuthor(s): Yi Zhen Tan, Yi Qi Chong, Emerlyn Khong, Yun Khoon Liew, Norman ChiengAbstractLive attenuated Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), marketed as Bacille Calmette-Guérin is the only FDA-approved vaccine against tuberculosis. The prerequisite of cold chain storage between 2 to 8 °C hinders the global vaccination effort. The study aims to investigate the effect of trehalose, sucrose and glycerol combinations in enhancing the stability of M. bovis. The bacilli were formulated in various ratios of trehalose-glycerol, sucrose-glycerol, trehalose-sucrose-glycerol systems (test samples) and sodium glutamate (control), freeze-dried and stored for 28 days at 4 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C. Bacteria viability at pre-, post freeze-drying and after storage were quantified by its density in colony-forming unit per millilitre (CFU/mL) as obtained through the pour plate method. Formulations were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry. Structural collapsed cakes were found on all freeze-dried formulations because of the low Tg’. Comparing between binary and ternary formulations, trehalose-sucrose-glycerol was found to be a superior lyoprotectant. Upon storage, the viability of bacteria in disaccharide-polyol formulations was highest when stored at 4 °C followed by 25 °C. The lowest viability was found after storage at 37 °C. While the ternary disacchar...
Source: International Journal of Pharmaceutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Pharmacological ResearchAuthor(s): Bahman Khameneh, Milad Iranshahy, Nasser Vahdati-Mashhadian, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Bibi Sedigheh Fazly BazzazAbstractTuberculosis (TB) is currently a clinical and public health problem. There is a concern about the emergence and development of multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR-TB) species. Additionally, the lack of effective vaccines is another limitation to control the related infections. To overcome these problems various approaches have been pursued such as finding novel drug candidates with a new mech...
Source: Pharmacological Research - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of Institutional Review Board of the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, with written informed consent from all subjects. All subjects gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil (approval number 693.111). Human Blood Samples and Preparation of Peripheral Blood Cells Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were separated from heparinized venous blood by Ficoll-Hypaque gradient centrifugation. Cells were then washed in ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusions Toxoplasma gondii infection induces a strong innate and adaptive immune response. While the innate immunity is important for controlling the early stages of the infection (Yarovinsky, 2014), the adaptive immunity is critical for restricting the parasite replication during the later stages (Gazzinelli et al., 1992). Amongst the adaptive immune subsets, CD8 T cells are the primary effector cells while CD4 T cells play an essential helper role to maintain long-term immunity (Casciotti et al., 2002). Notwithstanding, a robust CD8 T cell immunity induced during acute phase of infection, does not result in the total...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In conclusion, the results improve our understanding on the characteristics of lncRNAs and mRNAs on regulating host immune response against C. perfringens type C infection, which will provide a reference for future research into exploring C. perfringens-related diseases in human. Introduction Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) is a Gram-positive anaerobic rod and ranks as the second most common bacteria that causes fulminant, fatal infectious and immune diseases (Scharff, 2012; Grass et al., 2013). These diseases are characterized by fever, pain, gas production, local edema, and severe tissue destruction, the...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Yong Zhao1, Peijuan Liu1, Zhiqian Xin1, Changhong Shi1, Yinlan Bai2, Xiuxuan Sun3, Ya Zhao1, Xiaoya Wang1,4, Li Liu1,5, Xuan Zhao1,4, Zhinan Chen3* and Hai Zhang1,6* 1Laboratory Animal Center, Air Force Medical University, Xi’an, China 2Department of Microbiology, Air Force Medical University, Xi’an, China 3Department of Cell Biology, National Translational Science Center for Molecular Medicine, Air Force Medical University, Xi’an, China 4College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China 5Key Laboratory for Space Bioscience and Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nor...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Yong Yang1,2†, Xue Bai1†, Chengyao Li1†, Mingwei Tong3, Peihao Zhang2, Wei Cai4, Xiaolei Liu1* and Mingyuan Liu1,5* 1Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, College of Veterinary Medicine, Institute of Zoonosis, Jilin University, Changchun, China 2Wu Xi Medical School, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China 3School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China 4Affiliated Hospital of Jiangnan University, The Fourth People's Hospital of Wuxi City, Wuxi, China 5Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Di...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusions Decrease in cholesterol efflux, increase in uptake, and excess esterification of cholesterol compounded by the action of lipid peroxidation products generated by inflammatory processes contribute to foam cell formation in atherosclerosis. Since these are critical events in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, they have been extensively studied. On the contrary, although a role for host lipid metabolism in mycobacterial pathogenesis has been established, research in the different components that contribute to the alteration in host lipid metabolism and cholesterol homeostasis is still in the nascent stages. The...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusion and Future Directions The ECM model has produced a wealth of information on CM pathogenesis in mice with the aim to find an adjunctive therapy for HCM but its validity has been questioned. However, several investigators have provided a critical and evidence-based defense of this model (17, 128–131) and from knowledge gained from it, numerous laboratories have tested preclinical therapeutic interventions. Many have demonstrated efficacy at blocking the development of ECM but disappointingly, in a majority of cases, this was only found when administered before or early post infection and prior to the onset ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study, herpes virus serological status and T cell, B cell, NK cell and monocyte populations were investigated in 251 ME/CFS patients, including 54 who were severely affected, and compared with those from 107 healthy participants and with 46 patients with Multiple Sclerosis. There were no differences in seroprevalence for six human herpes viruses between ME/CFS and healthy controls, although seroprevalence for the Epstein-Barr virus was higher in multiple sclerosis patients. Contrary to previous reports, no significant differences were observed in NK cell numbers, subtype proportions or in vitro responsiveness betwe...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This study indicates that targeting of epitopes by human adaptive immunity is to some extent directed by defined thermodynamic principles. The proposed framework also has a practical implication in that it may enable to more efficiently prioritize epitope candidates highly prone to T cell recognition in multiple individuals, warranting prospective validation across different cohorts. Introduction T cell epitopes bound to major histocompatibility complex [MHC; also called the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) in humans] molecules activate T cells to initiate subsequent immunological orchestration (1–3). MHC class ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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