Future Considerations for Pediatric Cancer Survivorship: Translational Perspectives from Developmental Neuroscience

Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Developmental Cognitive NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Rebecca M. Jones, Siobhan S. PattwellAbstractBreakthroughs in modern medicine have increased pediatric cancer survival rates throughout the last several decades. Despite enhanced cure rates, a subset of pediatric cancer survivors exhibit life-long psychological side effects. A large body of work has addressed potential mechanisms for secondary symptoms of anxiety, post-traumatic stress, impaired emotion regulation and cognitive deficits in adults. Yet, absent from many studies are the ways in which cancer treatment can impact the developing brain. Additionally, it remains less known whether typical neurobiological changes during adolescence and early adulthood may actually buffer or exacerbate some of the known negative cancer survivorship outcomes. This review highlights genetic, animal, and human neuroimaging research across development. We focus on the neural circuitry associated with aversive learning, which matures throughout childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. We argue that along with other individual differences, the precise timing of oncological treatment insults on such neural circuitry may expose particular vulnerabilities for pediatric cancer patients. We also explore other moderators of treatment outcomes, including genetic polymorphisms and neural mechanisms underlying memory and cognitive control. We discuss how neural maturation extending into young adul...
Source: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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The purpose of this paper is to describe risk and protective factors for symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experienced over a 1.5-year period among both frontline and "non-traditional" responders to the 2010 and 2011 earthquakes in Christch...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Disaster Preparedness Source Type: news
The detection and identification of irritating compounds - the active ingredients of "pepper sprays", also called "tear gases" - are common types of analysis conducted in forensic laboratories. The tear gases available on the market contain, as active ing...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news
ABSTRACT Objective Review the diet and nutritional status of women surviving breast cancer following the Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 201 women, who underwent anthropometric measurements to determine body mass index, waist circumference and waist/hip ratio. Dietary assessment was performed usinga food frequency questionnaire. Consumption was stratifi ed into four groups: fresh/minimally processed food (Group 1), processed food ingredients (Group 2), processed food (Group 3) and ultra-processed food (Group 4).The ratio of daily contribution of each food ...
Source: Revista de Nutricao - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2019Source: Pharmacology &TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Stephen J. Bagley, Donald M. O’RourkeAbstractChimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are a form of autologous immunotherapy that has changed the therapeutic landscape of hematologic malignancies. CAR T cell therapy involves collection of a patient’s T cells by apheresis, ex vivo genetic modification of the T cells to encode a synthetic receptor that binds a specific tumor antigen, and infusion of the T cells back into the patient. With the unprecedented success of CAR T cells in leukemia and lymphoma, a growing nu...
Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2019Source: Pharmacology &TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Suya Wang, Jianshi Yu, Maureen A. Kane, Alexander R. MoiseAbstractThe vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid, is an important signaling molecule during embryonic development serving critical roles in morphogenesis, organ patterning and skeletal and neural development. Retinoic acid is also important in postnatal life in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis, while retinoid-based therapies have long been used in the treatment of a variety of cancers and skin disorders. As the number of people living with chronic disorders continu...
Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2019Source: Pharmacological ResearchAuthor(s): Siqi Feng, Huan Wang, Jiali Liu, Jiye AA, Fang Zhou, Guangji WangAbstractKetone bodies are traditionally viewed as metabolic substrates in carbohydrate restriction and are applied in the treatment of epilepsy and other neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, people have paid more attention to its application in the treatment for cancers. Compared to normal cells, cancer cells maintain a higher level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to the dysfunctional oxidative phosphorylation and they highly rely on glucose for glycolysis and p...
Source: Pharmacological Research - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
“The real meditation practice is how we live our lives from moment to moment to moment.” – Jon Kabat-Zinn As someone who strives daily to be the best I can be, to be present in the moment, minimize stress and appreciate the beauty and preciousness of life, I’m always keen to learn about scientifically-proven new health benefits of mindfulness meditation. Get better sleep. Anyone who’s suffered the lingering mental and physical effects of a poor night’s sleep on a regular basis, as I have on numerous occasions in the past, can appreciate this all-important benefit from mindfulness meditat...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Mindfulness Research Self-Help Stress Source Type: blogs
For years, the field of mental health has been largely barren of meaningful treatment advances. But now, scientists have new hope in the least likely of places: psychedelic drugs. Recent research suggests that certain psychedelic substances can help relieve anxiety, depression, PTSD, addiction and the fear surrounding a terminal diagnosis. “The biggest misconception people have about psychedelics is that these are drugs that make you crazy,” says Michael Pollan, author of the new book How to Change Your Mind: What the New Science of Psychedelics Teaches Us About Consciousness, Dying, Addiction, Depression, and ...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized healthytime Mental Health/Psychology Source Type: news
Conclusions: Nature contact may offer a range of human health benefits. Although much evidence is already available, much remains unknown. A robust research effort, guided by a focus on key unanswered questions, has the potential to yield high-impact, consequential public health insights. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1663 Received: 26 January 2017 Revised: 12 May 2017 Accepted: 25 May 2017 Published: 31 July 2017 Address correspondence to H. Frumkin, Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington School of Public Health, Box 354695, Seattle, WA 98195-4695 USA; Telephone: 206-897-1723;...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
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