The phytochemical bergenin as an adjunct immunotherapy for tuberculosis in mice Microbiology

The widespread availability and use of modern synthetic therapeutic agents have led to a massive decline in ethnomedical therapies. However, these synthetic agents often possess toxicity leading to various adverse effects. For instance, anti-tubercular treatment (ATT) is toxic, lengthy, and severely impairs host immunity, resulting in posttreatment vulnerability to reinfection and reactivation of tuberculosis (TB). Incomplete ATT enhances the risk for the generation of multidrug- or extensively drug-resistant (MDR or XDR, respectively) variants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), the TB-causing microbe. Therefore, a new therapeutic approach that minimizes these risks is urgently needed to combat this deadly disease and prevent future TB epidemics. Previously, we have shown that the phytochemical bergenin induces T helper 1 (Th1)– and Th17 cell–based protective immune responses and potently inhibits mycobacterial growth in a murine model of M. tb infection, suggesting bergenin as a potential adjunct agent to TB therapy. Here, we combined ATT therapy with bergenin and found that this combination reduces immune impairment and the length of treatment in mice. We observed that co-treatment with the anti-TB drug isoniazid and bergenin produces additive effects and significantly reduces bacterial loads compared with isoniazid treatment alone. The bergenin co-treatment also reduced isoniazid-induced immune impairment; promoted long-lasting, antigen-specific central mem...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

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The global control of tuberculosis (TB) remains a major challenge due to the epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis, especially multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), which is resistant to rifampin and isoniazid (Zhao et al., 2012; Zhang et al., 2014b). According to recent WHO global estimates, there were 480,000 MDR-TB cases in 2017 (WHO,2018). Almost half of the global MDR-TB cases occurred in China and India (WHO,2018). Due to resistance to both of the most effective antituberculosis drugs, the treatment of MDR-TB requires the use of the less effective and more toxic second-line drugs; approximately half of MDR-TB ...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
For the past decade, the epidemic of multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) stays high in China. We investigated the possible driving forces behind the epidemics from phylogenetic and historical perspectives.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: Young, male Eastern Europeans form a significant proportion of pulmonary INH-R/MDRTB/XDRTB, with high HIV and transfer of care rates. This may be representative of a working migrant population with a high risk of both initial and acquired TB resistance. Whole genome sequencing would help define this group further.Eastern European cohort (N=44)England 2016Europe 2016Male: Female2.31.41.5Site: Pulmonary36 (82%)54%76.3%HIV positive4/40 (10%)3.8%4.5%Positive microbiology/histology35 (80%)71%71%Drug susceptibility testing (n= 31)- INH- R- MDR/RR- XDR2 (6.4%)*1 (3.2%)*1 (3.2%)*5.5%1.7%0.2%-3.7%(20.1% of MDR were XDRC...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research
A 25 year-old tuberculosis patient is treated at her home in Funafuti, the main island of Tuvalu in the South Pacific. Credit: UNDP Tuvalu/Aurélia Rusek.By External SourceUNITED NATIONS, Oct 17 2019 (IPS) A staggering 1.5 million people died from tuberculosis (TB) last year, the UN health agency said on Thursday, in an appeal for far greater funding and political support to eradicate the curable and preventable disease. Caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, TB commonly causes persistent coughing, fatigue and weight loss. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and its latest Global TB Report, a...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Global Headlines Health Poverty & SDGs Source Type: news
de Viedma D, Ritacco V Abstract Two Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains-M (sublineage 4.1) and Ra (sublineage 4.3)-have long prevailed in Argentina among patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Recently, budget constraints have hampered the surveillance of MDR-TB transmission. Based on whole-genome sequence analysis, we used M- and Ra-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms to tailor two multiplex allele-specific PCRs, which we applied to 252 stored isolates (95% of all newly diagnosed MDR-TB cases countrywide), during 2015-2017. Compared with the latest data available (2007-2009), the M strain h...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Abstract Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) can cause the terrible tuberculosis (TB), which is reported as one of the most dreadful epidemic. Although many biochemical molecular drugs have been developed to cope with this disease, the drug resistance-especially the multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistance (XDR)-poses a huge threat to the treatment. However, traditional biochemical experimental method to tackle TB is time-consuming and costly. Benefited by the appearance of the enormous genomic and proteomic sequence data, TB can be treated via sequence-based biological computational approach-bioinfo...
Source: Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Med Chem Source Type: research
This report describes the case of a 9-year-old male patient who was suspected of having multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis, based on failure to recover clinically and radiologically after 6 months on first-line anti-tuberculosis treatment. Pus samples were sent to an accredited academic laboratory for histopathology, microscopy, culture, line-probe assay (MTBDRplus assay) and phenotypic MGIT 960 drug susceptibility tests. Second-line MDR tuberculosis treatment was introduced. Clinical, radiological, physical processes and more laboratory tests were conducted to document whether or not there was improvement in the patie...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Afr J Lab Med Source Type: research
The Central Asia outbreak (CAO) clade is a branch of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype that is associated with multidrug resistance, increased transmissibility, and epidemic spread in parts of the former Soviet Union. Furthermore, migration flows bring these strains far beyond their areas of origin. We aimed to find a specific molecular marker of the Beijing CAO clade and develop a simple and affordable method for its detection. Based on the bioinformatics analysis of the large M. tuberculosis whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data set (n = 1,398), we identified an IS6110 insertion in the Rv1359-Rv1360 intergenic...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Mycobacteriology and Aerobic Actinomycetes Source Type: research
n Sasiain M Abstract The fitness of a pathogen results from the interaction of multiple factors favoring either epidemiological success or failure. Herein, we studied the performance of the M strain, a highly successful multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotype, and its non-prosperous variant, the 410 strain, in activated human monocyte-derived macrophages. Both strains showed comparable ability to induce necrotic cell death and to survive in apoptotic macrophages. Of the various macrophage activation conditions tested, none led to an enhanced control of the outbreak strain. The combination of 1,25(O...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
ConclusionsMDE in individuals with MDR-TB was significantly associated with household food insecurity, independent of socio-economic status. Although MDR-TB is not exclusively a disease of the poor, individuals from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds (e.g., female, young adults, low education, and social grant recipients) were more likely to experience household food insecurity. Our study underscores the need to address the co-occurring cycles of food insecurity and untreated MDE in South Africa.
Source: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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