Free-breathing Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of Body Composition in Healthy and Overweight Children: An Observational Study

This study's objective was to use free-breathing MRI to quantify visceral and subcutaneous fat volumes and PDFFs and correlate these measurements with hepatic PDFF. Methods: This was an observational, hypothesis-forming study that enrolled 2 groups of children (ages 6–17 years), healthy children and overweight children with presumed nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Free-breathing MRI was used to measure visceral and subcutaneous fat volumes and PDFFs, and hepatic PDFF. Imaging biomarkers were compared between groups, and correlations coefficients (r) and coefficients of determination (R2) were calculated. Results: When compared with the control group (n = 10), the overweight group (n = 9) had greater mean visceral (1843 vs 329 cm3, P 
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Hepatology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: The adaptive k-nearest neighbors algorithm allowed an individual-centric assessment of each individual's metabolic phenotype moving beyond discrete categorizations of body composition. Within obesity and NAFLD, this may help in identifying which comorbidities a patient may develop and consequently enable optimization of treatment. PMID: 31094076 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Obesity - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Authors: Tags: Obesity (Silver Spring) Source Type: research
Authors: Lee SJ, Kim SU Abstract INTRODUCTION: With an increase in the worldwide prevalence of obesity, the incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been on the rise, such that it has been recently considered to be a major public health concern. Traditional interventions, such as lifestyle modifications, regular exercise, and healthy diet, have been significant in improving NAFLD with reduction of liver fat. Areas covered: Although liver biopsy is still the gold standard for diagnosis of NAFLD, there is a need for non-invasive, quantitative assessments of hepatic steatosis, especially in clinical ...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research
Ali Mahzari1, Songpei Li1, Xiu Zhou1,2, Dongli Li2, Sherouk Fouda1, Majid Alhomrani1, Wala Alzahrani1, Stephen R. Robinson1 and Ji-Ming Ye1,2* 1Lipid Biology and Metabolic Disease Laboratory, School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia 2School of Biotechnology and Health Sciences, Wuyi University, Jiangmen, China The present study investigated the effects of matrine on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in mice induced by a methionine choline-deficient (MCD) diet and the mechanism involved. The study was performed in C57B/6J mice fed a MCD diet for 6 weeks to induce NAS...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) makes up 75%-85% of all primary liver cancers and is the fourth most common cause of cancer related death worldwide. Chronic liver disease is the most significant risk factor for HCC with 80%-90% of new cases occurring in the background of cirrhosis. Studies have shown that early diagnosis of HCC through surveillance programs improve prognosis and availability of curative therapies. All patients with cirrhosis and high-risk hepatitis B patients are at risk for HCC and should undergo surveillance. The recommended surveillance modality is abdominal ultrasound (US) given that i...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
Often referred to as the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely linked to obesity.1 Lean subjects can have NAFLD2; however, the majority of patients with NAFLD are overweight or obese; however, not all overweight/obese patients have NAFLD.3 Although this observation is not entirely understood, it highlights the fact that obesity is not inextricably linked to the development of hepatic steatosis. Other factors, such as ethnicity and genetic predisposition (eg, PNPLA-3),3-5 body composition (eg, sarcopenia, subcutaneous adipose tissue function),6,7 feeding and die...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: A panel combination including routine blood markers linked to insulin resistance showed highest associations with MRI considered as a gold standard for determining liver fat content. This combination of tests can facilitate the diagnosis of early stages of non-alcoholic liver disease thereby avoiding other invasive and expensive methods. PMID: 30662331 [PubMed - in process]
Source: International Journal of Medical Sciences - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Int J Med Sci Source Type: research
Conclusions: A 12-wk RW intervention increases liver fat and might contribute to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, whereas a 12-wk 98-g/d WGW intervention prevents a substantial increase in liver fat. Our results show that incorporating feasible doses of WGW in the diet at the expense of RW maintains liver health. The study was registered at as NCT02385149. PMID: 30541093 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Am J Clin Nutr - Category: Nutrition Authors: Tags: Am J Clin Nutr Source Type: research
A 75-year-old man was found to have a solitary liver mass concerning for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). His medical history was notable for obesity, type 2 diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen was performed for abdominal pain and showed a 4.5 cm mass in the liver. Laboratory evaluation revealed total bilirubin 1.1 mg/dL, albumin 4.5 g/dL, prothrombin time 12.5 seconds, creatinine 1.2 mg/dL, platelets 199, and alpha fetoprotein 36 ng/mL. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen showed a 4.5 cm mass in segment 6/7 of the liver demonstrating early arterial enhancement wit...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Gray Zone Source Type: research
Rationale: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), among the commonest chronic liver disorders in children and adolescents, is considered a reflection of the current obesity epidemic in children and adults. This liver disease has been linked with various metabolic disorders, but not with prolactinoma (PRLoma). Patient concerns: A 13-year-old Japanese girl manifested obesity, serum transaminase and γ-glutamyltransferase elevations, and amenorrhea. Abdominal ultrasonography showed fatty liver. Her serum prolactin concentration was elevated, and cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed a pituitary mass consisten...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
Conclusion: We provide both the theoretical and experimental framework for a multi-scale EIT strategy to detect liver lipid content. Our preliminary studies pave the way to enhance the spatial resolution of EIT as a marker for fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome.
Source: Theranostics - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
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